Liver, pancreatic secretions and jaundice Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Liver, pancreatic secretions and jaundice > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver, pancreatic secretions and jaundice Deck (53):
1

What is the name of food when it exits the stomach?

Chyme

1

At what level must blood bilirubin by at for jaundice to occur?

35 micromolar - 3x the normal amount

2

What does colipase do?

Activates lipase 

Prevents bile acids inhibiting the lipase

2

What population gets pancreatitis the most?

Females >50

2

Why do a high proportion of babies get jaundice?

Is there is a lot of haemolysis during the switch from foetal to adult Hb and the liver it's yet developed enough to deal with the extra load. 

3

What happens when fatty acids enter to intestinal mucosa?

Reform triglycerides

4

Which pancreatic cells release bicarbonate?

Duct cells

4

What drug can be used to decrease fat absorption?

Orlistat

5

What are bile salts made from?

Cholesterol

6

What does CCK do to the gallbladder?

Stimulates contraction

6

Which pancreatic cells release enzymes?

Acinar

6

What serum markers are indicative of pancreatitis?

Lipase (most characteristic)

Amylase

6

Is Gilbert's syndrome severe? What goes wrong?

No, usually subclinical

Decreased conjugation of bilirubin

8

What are zymogens?

Inactivated precursor forms of enzymes

9

What happens to faeces after a fatty meal?

It's darker due to more bile

10

What is a hepatic cause of jaundice?

Intrahepatic obstruction - cirrhosis

11

What activates colipase?

Trypsin

12

How much bile can the liver produce per day?

Up to 1L

13

What is the function of the taurine and glycine groups on bile salts?

Increase solubility

14

What is cyst a general term for?

A Bladder-like structure

15

What structure does bile acids form in digested lipids?

Micelles

15

What happens in Dubin-Johnson syndrome? Is it severe?

Impaired secretion of conjugated bilirubin

Mild symptoms

16

What does secretin enhance the secretion of?

Bicarbonate in the acinar cells of pancreas

17

What happens when you have a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

You can't produce as much glutathione (glutathione protects against ROSs) > More ROS > RBCs damaged

18

What percentage of bilirubin comes from the breakdown of old RBCs?

80%

19

What endocrine hormones do islets of Langerhan make?

Insulin

Glucagon

20

How does increasing the fat cotent of faeces affect its appearance?

Paler, whiter

Greasy

Foul smelling

22

What is enterohepatic circulation?

Where bile salts are absorbed in the terminal ileum for recycling

23

What happens when you go on chloroquine when you have a deficiency in G6PD?

ROS from chloroquine aren't removed by glutathione > membrane destruction and globin precipitation > haemolytic jaundice, Heinz bodies

25

What type of agents are bile salts?

Detergents

26

What are two other names for bile?

Gall

Chole

28

What percentage of bile salts are recycled?

95%

28

What happens in Crigler-Najjar syndrome? Is it severe?

UDP glucuronyl transferase deficiency 

Yes, transplant required

29

Describe the structure of bile salts

Steroid structure with a carboxylic acid group that is commonly amide linked to taurine or glycine

31

In what form are lipids that lipases breakdown?

Triglycerides

32

What does a deficiency in galatose--6-phosphate uridylyl transferase result in?

Hypergalatosaemia > jaundice, cataracts

33

Why to premature babies get jaundice more?

Ligandin and UDP glucuronyl transferase takes longer to reach normal levels

34

What are the most important bile salts?

Cholic acid

Deoxycholic acid

Chenodeoxycholic acid

35

What gives gallstones their colour?

Bilirubin derivatives

36

What are gallstones predominantly made of?

Cholesterol

37

What is the function of the trypsin inhibitor?

Binds in the active zone of trypsin so that it isn't inappropriately activated in the pancreas

39

Which cells make insulin?

Beta cells

41

What does a loss of K cause?

Feeling of weariness

42

What is a pre-hepatic cause of jaundice?

Haemolysis

43

Where is cholecystokinin produced?

Walls of the duodenum

44

What does carboxypeptidase do?

Cleaves the C-terminus of proteins

46

What is occuring in pancreatitis?

Pancreatic enzymes are self digesting

47

What is good about having a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency?

Confer resistence to malaria

49

Is bilirubin in haemolytic jaundice conjugated or unconjugated?

It's not that white and black - there is a mix

50

What is post hepatic cause of jaundice?

Gallstone

51

What are the effects of CCK?

Gallbladder contraction

Digestive enzyme secretion from pancreas

Insulin secretion

Satiation in CNS

52

What are some causes of greater or prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia in babies?

Haemolytic disorder

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

Birth trauma

53

How do natural plant steroids reduce cholesterol?

Block bile salt receptors > new cholesterol must be used to make bile