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Flashcards in .anatomy Deck (310):
1

when you decrease the angle between the body parts UPWARDTO BRING TO TO SHOW OR FLEX YOUR MUSCLES

flexion

2

to increase the angle between two body parts.LEG OUTWARDRAISING HEAD UP TOWARD SKY

extension

3

move a body part away from the medium plane.DOING JUMPING JACKSABDUCT A CHILD AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS

abduction

4

to move a body part toward the medium plane. BRINGING SOMETHING CLOSER IN

aduction

5

to turn the palm of the hand posteriorly (out of anatomical position). pour soup out

pronation

6

to turn anteriorly (back to anatomical position). hold soup up

supination

7

- to turn outward or inside out

eversion

8

to draw inward or outside in. MOST TIME THIS IS HOW YOU WILL TWIST YOUR ANKLE

inversion

9

the feet are initially positioned how?

inverted

10

movement such that the distal end of a bone describes a circle and the shaft describes a cone.THIRD BASE COACH AS HE WAVES IN A RUNNER FROM SECOND BASE TO TRY TO SCORE A RUN

circumduction

11

- to close

constriction

12

muscle that expands an organ, vessel, or orifice

dilator

13

are called sphincter and all will constrict.

circular shaped muscle

14

to raise a particular body part.

elevation

15

circular shaped

orbicularis, sphincter muscles

16

sternoclavicular articulation and mastoid process of the temporal bone.

Sternocleidomastoid

17

to lower a body part

depresssion

18

Turning a bone about its long axis. Shaking head no. [This muscle action has no antagonistic muscle action, but rather refers to the turning of a bone about its long axis, as when you shake your head no.]

rotation

19

- triangular

deltoid(DELTA)

20

- thin and flat

platysma

21

four-sided

quadratus

22

large

vastus

23

four sided diamond

trapezius

24

straight

rectus(ERECT)

25

occipital bone and frontal bone

Occipitofrontalis

26

may be used to designate “divisions”

ceps

27

between the ribs

intercostal

28

facial cheeks

buccinator

29

circular-shaped muscle of the mouth

orbicularis oris

30

circular-shaped muscle of the eye

orbicularis oculi

31

superficial vs deep

The muscles of facial expression lie superficially in relationship to the muscles of mastication, which lie deep.

32

muscles of the arm, between shoulders to elbow

brachii

33

– muscles of the thigh, between hip and knee

femoris

34

the relatively FIXED point of attachment of the muscle

origin

35

the relatively MOVABLE point of attachment of the muscle

insertion

36

7 classification of muscles

actionshapepoints of attachmentnumber of divisionslocationdirection of fiberssize

37

the fibers of this muscle found in the ventral abdominal wall form a “V”

external oblique

38

the fibers of this muscle, located just beneath the external oblique, form an inverted “V” (a teepee).

internal oblique

39

innermost of the muscles of the ventral abdominal wall, its fibers go transversely (horizontally).

Transverse abdominus

40

head musclesBroad flat tendon which joins the Frontalis

galea aponeurotica Occipitofrontalis (epicranius)

41

study of muscles; all are used for movement of and within the body

mycology

42

three types of muscle

cardiacvisceralskeletal

43

(muscle)heart only, moves involuntary, slightly striated

cardiac muscle

44

(muscle) – in organs of body, involuntary movement, smooth, single nucleus per muscle cell

visceral (smooth) muscle

45

(muscle) striated (connected with tendons or ligaments), multi nucleated, voluntary, used for flexing and extending

skeletal muscle

46

the bulky, fleshy part of the muscle which shortens and thickens during contraction

body or belly

47

muscles of mastication (4)chewer muscle; close mouth and clench teeth

masseter

48

muscles of mastication (4)– fan shaped muscle located on the squamous portion of the temporal bone; close mandible; as well as protrude the mandible. Clench teeth; retract lower jaw

temporalis

49

muscles of mastication (4)opens and protrudes mandible; moves mandible side to side

lateral (external) pterygoid

50

name from most superficial to most deep, or outer to inner the direction of fibers

external obliqueinternal obliquetransverse abdominus

51

(LG) breast muscles

pectoralis major

52

(SM) breast muscles

pectoralis minor

53

(LG) top or most superficial butt muscle

gluteus maximus

54

(SM) butt muscle just below madius

gluteus minimus

55

(LG) upper thigh, boundary of femoral triangle

adductor magnus

56

(SHORT) upper thigh

adductor brevis

57

another name for short

brevis

58

calf muscle, large in terms of size

gastrocnemius

59

cause goose bumps; small in terms of size; circular; at bottom of hair shaft

arrector pili muscles

60

muscles of the head

occipitafrontalis (epicranius)- galea aponeuroticamuscles of the mastication (chewing and swallowing)massetertemporalislateral (external) pterygoidmedial (internal) pterygoid

61

muscles of the neck and trunk

neckplatysmaomophoidsternocleidomastoidtrunk(back muscles)trapeziuslatissimus dorsichestpectoralis majorexternal intercostalsinternal intersostalsabdomen(anterolateral wall)external obliqueinternal obliquetransverse abdominus(anteromedial wall)rectus abdominus(posterior wall)psoas major (iliopsoas)diaphragm (phrenic muscle)openingsespohageal orificeaortic orificeinferior vena caval orifice

62

muscles of upper extremities

shoulder musclesdeltoidteres majorarm muscles (between shoulder and elbow)biceps brachiicoracobrachialisbrachialistriceps brachiiforearm muscles (between elbow and wrist)ventral aspect (medial to lateral)flexor carpi ulnarisflexor digitorum superficialisflexor carpi radialisdorsal aspectsuperficial: brachiradialisdeep: remember that as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand

63

muscles of mastication (4)closes and protrudes mandible

medial (internal) pterygoid

64

muscles of the neck (3)flat thin muscle (paper thin) of the neck, tense or wrinkle skin of neck and depresses lower jaw

platysma

65

muscles of the neck (3)depress and lower the hyoid bone

omohyoid

66

muscles of the neck (3)mark the widest part of the neck, used to rotate and extend the head; anatomical guide for embalming in carotid (neck) area**** forms the lateral boundary of the anterior cervical triangle

sternocleidomastoid

67

diamond shaped muscle of upper back; used to elevate or shrug shoulders

trapezius

68

large flat muscle of lower back

latissimus dorsi

69

largest muscle of upper chest region; used to flex and adduct arm

pectoralis major

70

draws ribs together; outermost muscle between ribs

external intercostals

71

draws ribs together; innermost muscle between ribs

internal intercostals

72

Another system within the body which is lesser known than the blood vascular system is known as the

lymph vascular system

73

dealing with a system of vessels

vascular systems

74

two vascular systems within the body

blood and lymph

75

The substance which ONLY flows through the lymph vessels. (spring like) - a substance in the body which ALWAYS forms or BEGINS from tissue fluid.

lymph

76

The substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.

tissue fluid

77

The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels called

lymph capillaries

78

functions of the Lymph Vascular System

a. Maintain proper tissue fluid balance.b. Helps to remove other waste products.c. One of the body’s basic defense systems (phagocytosis, antibodies).

79

Specialized types of tissue strategically placed throughout the human body

lymphoid tissue

80

three pairs of lymphoid tissue, including the adenoids, which protect the opening between the mouth cavity proper and oropharynx (throat).

tonsils

81

--The largest mass of Lymphoid Tissue in the human body.--Located in the Abdominal Pelvic Cavity. --Helps the liver to recycle red blood cells.

spleen

82

A mass of lymphoid tissue. The LARGEST and MOST ACTIVE during INFANCY. Located at the BASE OF THE NECK. Produces antibodies for the rest of a person’s life called T-CELLS. This gland will shrink with age

thymus gland

83

Filters for lymph. They are strategically placed in the human body. There are four (4) specific locations.• All are named for their location.

lymph nodes

84

located in the ARM PIT region.These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the UPPER EXTREMITIES and the PECTORAL REGION (chest). Used to detect or stage the level of malignancy in BREAST CANCER.

axillary lymph nodes

85

located in the NECK region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the HEAD AND NECK. Used to detect HODGIKN'S DISEASE.

cervical lymph nodes

86

located in the GROIN region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the LOWER extremities. (BUBONIC PLAGUE)

inguinal lymph nodes

87

located in the INTESTINES. These lymph originating from the INTESTINAL TRACK OR BOTH LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINES. Used to detect stages of COLON CANCER

mesentric lymph nodes

88

the waxy, milky substance which is formed by the union of digestive fats with lymph. (fat mix with lymph)

chyle

89

when chyle comes from the small intestine and lymph comes from the lower extremities, the two get together at a temporary enlarged pouch called a

cistera chyli

90

the flow of chlye begins where?

in the lacteals

91

what color is lymph?

clear, straw colored, or may have an amber color (yellow tent)

92

small finger like projections in the small intestine by which increases the surface area over which food could be absorbed. a single one contains three structures (vein, artery, and lacteal)

villi

93

it is estimated that what percentage of the digestive fat that is absorbed in the small intestine will go into the lymph capillary

30%

94

a special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine

lacteals

95

two large main ducts or passageways for lymph that are the ONLY ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the bloodstream.

thoracic ductright lymphatic duct

96

the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the LEFT upper extremities, LEFT side of the head and neck, LEFT side of the chest, the ENTIRE abdominal cavity, and BOTH lower extremities will drain through this duct.

thoracic duct

97

- second largest lymph duct that only originates on the RIGHT side of the head and neck. The RIGHTupper extremities, and RIGHT side of the thoracic cavity will eventually drain through this duct

right lymphatic duct

98

Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called __________

blood

99

General Characteristics of BLOOD

ph of bloodviscosity (thickness)temperature of blood

100

ph of blood

7.3 - 7.4 slightly alkaline

101

- a measure of the resistance to the flow of a liquid

viscosity (thickness)

102

Blood moves _______ times thicker than _______

4 1/2 to 5 1/2water

103

Temperature of blood

100.3 Fslightly warmer than normal body temperature of 98.6 F

104

general composition of human blood

plasma 55%corpuscles 45%

105

(Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.

plasma

106

45% of whole human blood

formed elements(corpuscles)

107

name the four types of lymphoid tissue

tonsilsspleenthymus glandlymph nodes

108

a large pouch

cistera

109

the flow of chyle end at the cisteria chyli and becomes lymph

chyli

110

its flow goes in one directionits flow in humans will eventually go into the blood systemits flow is very sluggish and is accomplished by muscle contraction

lymph

111

once lymph enter the _________ __________, it will flow in ONLY __________ direction(s) by means of slightly larger ________ ___________. From the __________, the lymph will move to the ________ _________ which are strategically placed for filter of lymph. Once at the ________ _________, there are ____ large main ducts or passageways for lymph in the human body ____________________________

lymph capillariesonelymph vesselsvesselslymph nodeslymph nodestworight lymphatic duct thoracic duct

112

components of plasma

92 % water8 % dissolved substances

113

(Components of plasma)blood proteins (clotting process)

serum albuminserum globulinfibrinogen

114

aids in forming the fibrous net which prevents you from bleeding to death

fibrinogen

115

non protein components of plasma

salts, nutrients, gases, hormones, clotting factors, enzymes, and antibodies

116

non protein salt components of plasma

saltpotassiumcalciummagnesium

117

non protein nutrient components of plasma

food glucose (blood sugar)lipids-fats

118

primary constituent of urine

ammonia

119

essential clotting factor of plasma

Factor 8

120

speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process

enzymes (ASE)

121

dissolved within the plasma portion of blood

antibodies

122

name the three groups of formal elements of blood

erythrocytes leukocytesthrombocytes

123

red blood cells

erythrocytes

124

white blood cells

leukocytes

125

platelets

thrombocytes

126

most numerous of the corpuscles found in the formed element portion of the blood. 7 microns in diameter

erythrocytes

127

bioncave disc shaped; DO NOT have a nucleus, 4.5 to 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood; crenation and hemolysis; originate in bone marrow, 120 day lifespan; destroyed in the liver and the spleenThere only function is to carry hemoglobin.

erythrocytes

128

a protein molecule to which oxygen initially attaches itself in the lungs

hemoglobin

129

the shrinking of red blood cells when placed in hypertonic solution

crenation

130

the bursting or rupturing of a red blood cell when placed in a hypotonic solution

hemolysis

131

only function of the erythrocytes

to carry hemoglobin

132

least numerous of the corpuscles, white blood cells, 5000-9000 per cubic millimeter of blood,

leukocytes

133

name the two types of leukocytes and their subtypes

agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes)granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophil)

134

type of white blood cells that do not contain granules in their protoplasm

agranulocytes

135

type of agranulocyte that has a large, single nucleus without granules in them. Responsible for production of antibodies in all living things

lymphocytes

136

type of agranulocyte also called scavenger cells. They are shipped by the body where a scar has formed to rid the body of pus so scab can form

monocytes

137

type of white blood cells that do contain granules in their protoplasm

granulocytes

138

type of granulocyte; most numerous of the white blood cells. Greatest quantity (65%) White blood cell count. Has granules within its protoplasm when the cells are stained it is not exposed to any color- no color- it is neutrally stained. Its function is to perform phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.

neutrophils

139

the type of granulocytes that stain red in the laboratory setting

eosinophils

140

type of granulocytes; the least numerous of the white blood cells. Its granules will stain blue. This cell is what causes people to have allergic reactions

basophil

141

Functions of white blood cells

defense of the body against infection by diapedesis and phagocytosis

142

- have the ability to squeeze themselves through pores of the capillaries and perform phagocytosis - surround, ingest and destroy the infection.

Diapedesis

143

- looks like fragments of cells. Purpose is initiate or begin clotting process.

Thrombocytes – (platelets)

144

fragmented cells, 300,000 per cubic millimeter; normal coagulation time: 3-5 minutes; plasma vs. serum

thrombocytes (platelets)

145

the liquid portion of non-clotted blood

plasma

146

the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted

serum

147

function of thrombocytes

clotting of blood, to initiate the clotting process.

148

Chemistry of clotting blood

a) Fragmentation of platelets released a chemical called thromboplastin.b) Thromboplastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin.c) Prothrombin unites with calcium to form thrambin.d) Thrambin and fibrinogen from fibrin.e) Fibrin and blood cells form the clot within three to five minutes.

149

Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.

a) Thromboplastin (thromborinase) (cephalin) b) Prothrombin c) Calcium CA d) Fibrinogen

150

Substance naturally in the blood that by themselves will inhibit blood from clotting.

AntithrombinAntiprothrombin (heparin)

151

Origin of the thrombocytes

bone marrow

152

function of blood

a. Transport – O2, CO2, food, waste, hormonesb. Temperature regulation – 98.6c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than ½ or deathe. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)

153

the active chemical substance present in the secretion of endocrine glands

hormones

154

HEAD MUSCLES

OCCIPITALFRONTALIS (OPICRANIUS)MASSETERTEMPORALISLATERAL (EXTERNAL) PTERYGOIDMEDIAL (INTERNAL) PTERYGOID

155

broad flat tendon attaching muscle to muscle

GALEA OPONEUROTICA

156

chewing and swallowing

MASTICATION & DEGLUDINATION

157

NECK MUSCLES

PLATYSMAOMOHYOIDSTERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

158

TRUNK/TORSO major muscles

back muscleschest musclesabdomen musclesdiaphragm muscles

159

BACK MUSCLES

TRAPEZIUSLATISSIMUS DORSI

160

MAJOR CHEST MUSCLES

PECTORALIS MAJOREXTERNAL INTERCOSTALSINTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

161

ABDOMEN MUSCLES

ANTEROLATERAL WALLANTEROMEDIAL WALLPOSTERIOR WALL

162

ANTEROLATERAL WALL (abdomen) muscles

EXTERNAL OBLIQUEINTERNAL OBLIQUETRANSVERSE ABDOMINUS

163

ANTEROMEDIAL WALL (abdomen) muscle

RECTUS ABDOMINUS

164

POSTERIOR WALL (abdomen) muscle

PSOAS MAJOR (ILIOPSOAS)

165

to flex and medially rotate the thigh; guide to raise the iliac artery; *(can be counted as 3 muscles or 1 muscle depending on anatomist)

PSOAS MAJOR (ILIOPSOAS)

166

(PHRENIC MUSCLE)

DIAPHRAGM

167

major muscle for breathing, both exhaling and inhaling

DIAPHRAGM (PHRENIC MUSCLE)

168

OPENINGS of DIAPHRAGM

ESOPHAGEAL ORIFICE AORTIC ORIFICEINFERIOR VENA CAVAL ORIFICE

169

opening thru which esophagus passes

ESOPHAGEAL ORIFICE

170

opening thru which aorta (largest artery) passes

AORTIC ORIFICE

171

opening for (IVC), largest vein in body, named by angle/direction not by size

INFERIOR VENA CAVAL ORIFICE

172

UPPER EXTREMITIES muscles

SHOULDER MUSCLESARM MUSCLESFOREARM MUSCLES

173

SHOULDER MUSCLES

DELTOIDTERES MAJOR

174

abduction of the arm, move arm away from medial plane, triangle shape gives roundness/firmness of the arm

DELTOID

175

muscle to adduct and medially rotate the arm, largest muscle in terms of size

TERES MAJOR

176

(between shoulder and elbow)

ARM MUSCLES

177

ARM MUSCLES

BICEPT BRACHII CORACOBRACHIALISBRACHIALIS TRICEPS BRACHII

178

(between elbow and wrist)

FOREARM MUSCLE

179

FOREARM MUSCLE VENTRAL ASPECTlisted medial to lateral,

FLEXOR CARPI ULNARISFLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALISFLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS

180

function of all is to flex and pronate the hands

FOREARM MUSCLEVENTRAL ASPECT

181

most medial ventral muscle of forearm

FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS

182

the ulnar artery lies LATERAL to the tendon of the...

flexor carpi ulnaris

183

most prominent tendon seen at the middle of the wrist

FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS

184

the ulnar artery lies MEDIAL to the tendon of the

FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS

185

most lateral ventral muscle of the forearm

FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS

186

DORSAL ASPECT of Forearm MusclesSUPERFICIALLY:

BRACHIORADIALIS

187

as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand

DEEP: (forearm)

188

popeye's muscle

brachioradials

189

LOWER EXTREMITIES MUSCLES

GLUTEAL REGION THIGH MUSCLELEG MUSCLES

190

GLUTEAL REGION

GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

191

(between hip and knee

THIGH MUSCLE

192

front of femoral area

ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES

193

ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES

SARTORIUS QUADRICEPTS FEMORIS

194

forms lateral boundary of femoral triangle, longest muscle in body, used to cross legs;common name is tailor’s muscle

SARTORIUS

195

TAILOR'S MUSCLE

SARTORIUS

196

THIGH MUSCLES

ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLESMEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES

197

4 headed muscle in the thigh region. Located in the front of the thigh

QUADRICEPTS FEMORIS

198

PARTS OF QUADRICEPTS FEMORIS

RECTUS FEMORIS VASTUS LATERALISVASTUS MEDIALISVASTUS INTERMEDIUS

199

close to midline; bring the body toward the medial plane; adduct the thigh

MEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES

200

MEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES

ADDUCTOR LONGUSADDUCTOR MAGNUS

201

longest adductor muscle; serves as medial boundary of the femoral triangle

ADDUCTOR LONGUS

202

largest of the adductor muscle serves as the anatomical limit between femoral blood vessels; located superior to the blood vessels at the opening of the adductor magnus

ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

203

in back; hamstring group, common in basketball injuries

POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES

204

POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLESall three of these used to extend the thigh

BICEPS FEMORISSEMITENDINOSUSSEMIMEMBRANOSUS

205

2 headed muscle; one of the 3 most lateral posterior muscles of the thigh; when flexed, you can feel tendon

BICEPS FEMORIS

206

used to tense your knee tendon of the knee stands out when you tense your knee

SEMITENDINOSUS

207

most medial muscle of the posterior of the thigh

SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

208

(between knee and ankle

LEG MUSCLES

209

LEG MUSCLES

ANTERIOR MUSCLES: TIBIALIS ANTERIORPOSTERIOR MUSCLES: CALCANEAL TENDON

210

posterior leg muscles

GASTROCNEMIUS SOLEUS

211

calf muscle...large fleshy muscle (Charlie horse)

GASTROCNEMIUS

212

planter flexion, point the toe downwardwalk on tiptoe (dancers toes)

SOLEUS

213

The space between the lungs where the heart and great blood vessels is housed.

Mediastinum

214

Referring exclusive to the upper chambers of the human heart

atria

215

A single upper chamber of the human heart

atrium

216

four (4) distinct chambers of the heart

Right Atrium - Left Atrium - Right Ventricle - Left Ventricle-

217

The upper right chamber of the heart

right atrium

218

The upper left chamber of the heart

left atrium

219

The lower right chamber of the heart

right ventricle

220

The lower left chamber of the heart

left ventricle

221

the natural opening present between the upper chambers of the fetal heart. Allows the fetal lungs to develop

foramen ovale

222

the oval shaped shallow depression best seen in the right atrium of an adult heart. This is formed where the foramen ovale used to be located.

fossa ovalis

223

two lower chambers of the human heart. They are larger in capacity than the upper chambers

ventricles

224

Two structures only found in the ventricles of the heart:

Papillary muscles - Chordae tendineae -

225

finger like muscles only found within the ventricles of the heart. Used to regulate or control specific heart valves.

papillary muscles

226

look like little pieces of string called tendious cords. Attach papillary muscles to individual sections (cusps) of the heart valve which they control.

chordae tendineae

227

individual sections of a human heart valve

cusps

228

four major valves in the heart

Tricuspid valve - Pulmonary (semilunar) valve - Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve -Aortic (semilunar) valve -

229

consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps - control the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle. Regulated or controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae which are only found in the right ventricle of the heart.

tricuspid valve

230

consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk. Relies on backflow of blood to fill up the cusps to prevent it from going back into the chamber.

pulmonary (semilunar) valve

231

the only heart valve that consists of two distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle. The papillary muscles and chordae tendineae controls this valve and are only located in the left ventricle of the lower chamber of the heart.

bicuspid (mitral) valve

232

consists of three distinct cusps or sections. Controls the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta. Similar to the pulmonary (semilunar) valve, it relies on the backflow of blood to fill up the three cusps of this opening and close the valve.

aortic (semilunar) valve

233

Which two heart valves are controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?

Tricuspid valve Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve

234

Layers in the walls of the heart (innermost to outermost).

Endocardium – .Myocardium - Pericardium – (peri- around)

235

the innermost layer of the heart. This is the layer in which the heart valves are made. Makes up the cusps of the heart valve

endocardium

236

the muscle layer of the heart. It is thickest in the left ventricle. The last chamber to receive oxygenated blood from the heart to the entire body.

myocardium

237

the sack surrounding the heart.

pericardium

238

two types of pericardium

visceral pericardiumparietal pericardium

239

that part of the pericardium directly attached to the heart

visceral pericardium

240

outermost layer of the heart and the layer of the pericardium closest to the body wall.

parietal pericardium

241

second largest vein in the human body. It will eventually drain any blood coming from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thoracic region.

superior vena cava

242

the largest vein in the human body. It eventually drains blood from the lower extremities and abdomen

inferior vena cava

243

is the key chamber to establish drainage in embalming.

right atrium

244

the large vein which drains blood from the heart itself

coronary sinus

245

carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart of a living human. They become smaller away from the heart

arteries

246

start small and become larger closer to the heart. carries blood low in oxygen toward the heart.

veins

247

- the opening of the superior vena cava (the angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - superiorly or top) (SVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart.

superior vena cava orifice

248

(Angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - inferiorly or bottom). The opening of the inferior vena cava (IVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart

inferior vena cava orifice

249

the opening located between the right atrium and right ventricle. In turn controlled by the tricuspid valve

Right atrioventricular orifice

250

the opening located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Only controlled by the bicuspid or mitral valve

Left atrioventricular orifice

251

the opening of the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium of the heart.

Coronary sinus orifice

252

the four opening of the pulmonary veins directly into the atrium of the heart.

Pulmonary vein orifices

253

the opening located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.

Pulmonary trunk orifice

254

the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta (the largest artery in the human body)

Aortic orifice

255

right ventricle and left atrium- the two way exchange of blood between the heart and the lungs

pulmonary circulation

256

The only two chambers of the heart involved in pulmonary circulation are the ______ and the __________The _________ is the chamber of the heart in which pulmonary circulation begins. The__________ is where pulmonary circulation ends.

right ventricle left atriumright ventricleleft atrium

257

left ventricle and right atrium- the two way exchange between the heart and the rest of the body except for the lungs

Systemic circulation

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The only two chambers involved in systemic circulation are the ________ and the ________. The__________ of the heart is where systemic circulation begins. The _________ is where systemic circulation ends. Systemic circulation would include a study of an openings of the heart valves, orifices of the heart, an arteries or veins of the body that are involved in this two way exchange of blood and the body, EXCEPT THE LUNGS

left ventricleright atriumleft ventricleright atrium

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oval shaped opening naturally present between the atria or upper chambers of the fetal heart

foramen ovale

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oval shaped shallow depression of the heart, best seen in the right atrium of the adult heart. These changes need to occur shortly after birth.

fossa ovalis

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- a passageway for blood, located between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, in fetal circulation. Designed to shunt or bypass shipment to the fetal lungs

Ductus arteriosus

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adult counterpart structure of ductus arteriosus. It should turn into a ligament shortly after birth. It shouldn’t carry blood after you are born

ligamentum arteriosum

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A single vein present in fetal circulation designed to shunt or bypass shipment of blood the fetal liver

Ductus venosus

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is the adult counterpart structure of the ductus venosus. It should turn a ligament shortly after birth

Ligamentum venosus

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two arteries of fetal circulation that carry blood low in oxygen and high in waste products from the fetus to the placenta

umbilical arteries

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– the adult counterpart of the two umbilical arteries.

Lateral umbilical ligaments

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the single vein which conveys blood high in oxygen and useable food substances from the placenta to the fetus

Umbilical vein

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the adult counterpart of the umbilical vein

Ligamentum teres of the liver

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Layers of Blood vessels (Arteries) -Outer most to inner most

Tunica adventitia (tunica externa) Tunica media (muscle layer) Tunica intima (interna) .

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outer most layer of the three layers (elastic tissue) of blood vessels. Function is to allow the embalmer to stretch the vessel to the surface.

Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)

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middle layer of a three layer blood vessel. Known as smooth (visceral) muscles. Allow for shipment of blood.

Tunica media (muscle layer)

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inner most layer. The only layer continuous, which means it is found in every blood vessel of the human body

Tunica intima (interna)

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a three layered blood vessels that carries blood HIGH in oxygen away from the heart of a living person.

artery

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As arteries move away from the heart they lose which layer?

tunica adventitia layer

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(tiny arteries) - a two layer blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart of a living person. Only contains tunica media and tunica intima

Arteriole

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As the artery continues to move away from the heart the next (2nd) layer lost is?

tunica media (muscle layer)

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a single layered blood vessel. Only contains tunica intimaIt is at this point that the arterial portion of the blood vascular system unites with the venous portion of the blood vascular system and the process reverse.In Reverse - The tunica media (muscle layer) reappears

capillary

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(a tiny vein) -two layered blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. The Tunica adventitia (externa) then reappears

venule

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three layered blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart of a living person

veins

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Layers making up a vein are ________ than that of an artery.

thinner

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The capillary level is where life occurs. The walls are so thin blood has to line up to pass. Veins are the suction side as blood moves toward the heart of a living person. Veins start small and as the venule or tunica media (muscle layer) reappears, it leaves a two layer vein carrying blood to the heart. As blood continues, the tunica intima (interna), third layer, or vein reappears carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. Layers of a vein are thinner and can be ruptured more easily. 85% of blood shifts to the venous side of the body following death. Veins are equipped with valves to prevent the back flow of blood going towards the heart of a living person from going to the lowest point to prevent the back flow.

--

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blood vessels that feed the outer layers of arteries, arterioles, veins, and venules. This is the red squiggly line found on blood vessels by which to differentiate an artery from a nerve.

Vasa vasdrum

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alternate (secondary) route of blood flow

Collateral circulation

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normal blood pressure

120/80

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top number of a blood pressure reading. the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the ventricles

systole(systolic pressure)

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bottom number of a blood pressure reading. the resting phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the two small atria (upper chambers)

diastole(diastolic pressure)

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low in oxygen blood; most important in embalming to establish and maintain drainage.

right atrium

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receives blood from the lungs

left atrium

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pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen

right ventricle

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largest and strongest muscle of the heart; last pump of blood with oxygen to the body via arteries

left ventricle

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venous side; blood low in oxygen

right side

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artery side; blood high in oxygen

left side

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Large artery which first ships blood low in oxygen from the heart toward the lungs

pulmonary trunk

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the largest artery in the human body.

aorta

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The plural cavity only surrounds the

lungs

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Feed the left/right anterior (front) portion of the cerebrum or brain tissue.

Left/Right anterior cerebral artery

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Does not feed any specific part of brain tissue. Its purpose is to communicate or join the right/left internal carotid artery to the right/left posterior cerebral artery.

Right/Left posterior communicating artery

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feed the right/left posterior portion of cerebrum or brain tissue.

Right/Left posterior cerebral artery

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The only single/unpaired artery. Does not feed any specific part of brain tissue. Its purpose is to communicate or join the left and right anterior cerebral artery to each other. Its entire length is involved in making up the circle. Without it, we wouldn't have a complete ring.

Anterior communicating artery (NAPPY HEAD LONELY DUDE!!)

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the union or joining together of blood vessels

Anastomosis

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List the arteries involved in making up the Circle of Willis

Right & Left Internal Carotid ArteriesRight & Left Posterior Communicating ArteriesRight & Left Posterior Cerebral ArteriesRight & Left Anterior Cerebral ArteriesAnterior Communicating Artery (NAPPY HEAD LONELY DUDE!!)

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5 branches of Facial Side (from most lateral to most superiorly)Hint:SomeLadyFoundMyStuff

1. Superior thyroid artery - the first branch of the external carotid artery to rise on the facial side. Feeds the superior portion of the thyroid gland. 2. Lingual artery - the second branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. Feeds the tongue. 3. Facial artery - the third branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. For testing purposes, the facial artery is the most important branch off the external carotid artery during embalming because it feeds the face - the cheeks, lips, mouth, nose, and eyelids. It passes behind the mandible or lower jaw. 4. Maxillary artery - the fourth branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. Feeds the maxilla or upper jaw, the upper teeth, and the majority of the muscles of mastication. 5. Superficial temporal artery - the fifth branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side and most superior artery that feeds the forehead region. The forehead region - the anterior 1/3 of a person’s scalp that is fed by the superficial temporal artery.

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3 branches of Auricular SideHint:AssumeOuter Positions

1. Ascending pharyngeal artery - the first branch to rise off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. Feeds the pharynx (throat) and the soft palate (roof of the mouth that consists of soft tissue).2. Occipital Artery - the second branch off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. Feeds the occipital region (back of the head). The occipital region- The posterior 1/3 of a person’s scalp is fed by the occipital artery.3. Posterior auricular artery - the third branch off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. This is the most superior branch on the auricular side. It travels behind the ear. Feeds the middle (lateral) 1/3 of the scalp.

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(deep brachial artery) branch off the brachial artery that feeds the triceps brachii muscles.

Profunda branchii

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A circle of arteries that feed the cerebrum (the largest part of brain tissue).

Circle of Willis

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The Circle of Willis is also called...

Cerebroarterial Circle

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the point on either side of the neck, at which each common carotid artery terminates by splitting into an (1) Internal carotid artery (feeds inside the skull)(2) External carotid artery (feeds the outside of the skull)

Carotid sinus

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It is a continuation of the Right Common Carotid Artery. The largest sized artery that bring blood to base of the brain.

Right/Left internal carotid artery

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branch off subclavian artery off the left/right. Which goes superiorly

Left/right vertebral artery

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an unpaired or single artery formed by the union of the left and right vertebral arteries. It is a contributing artery of the circle of Willis.

Basilar artery