Flashcards in .anatomy Deck (310):
when you decrease the angle between the body parts UPWARDTO BRING TO TO SHOW OR FLEX YOUR MUSCLES
to increase the angle between two body parts.LEG OUTWARDRAISING HEAD UP TOWARD SKY
move a body part away from the medium plane.DOING JUMPING JACKSABDUCT A CHILD AWAY FROM THEIR PARENTS
to move a body part toward the medium plane. BRINGING SOMETHING CLOSER IN
to turn the palm of the hand posteriorly (out of anatomical position). pour soup out
to turn anteriorly (back to anatomical position). hold soup up
- to turn outward or inside out
to draw inward or outside in. MOST TIME THIS IS HOW YOU WILL TWIST YOUR ANKLE
the feet are initially positioned how?
movement such that the distal end of a bone describes a circle and the shaft describes a cone.THIRD BASE COACH AS HE WAVES IN A RUNNER FROM SECOND BASE TO TRY TO SCORE A RUN
- to close
muscle that expands an organ, vessel, or orifice
are called sphincter and all will constrict.
circular shaped muscle
to raise a particular body part.
orbicularis, sphincter muscles
sternoclavicular articulation and mastoid process of the temporal bone.
to lower a body part
Turning a bone about its long axis. Shaking head no. [This muscle action has no antagonistic muscle action, but rather refers to the turning of a bone about its long axis, as when you shake your head no.]
- thin and flat
four sided diamond
occipital bone and frontal bone
may be used to designate “divisions”
between the ribs
circular-shaped muscle of the mouth
circular-shaped muscle of the eye
superficial vs deep
The muscles of facial expression lie superficially in relationship to the muscles of mastication, which lie deep.
muscles of the arm, between shoulders to elbow
– muscles of the thigh, between hip and knee
the relatively FIXED point of attachment of the muscle
the relatively MOVABLE point of attachment of the muscle
7 classification of muscles
actionshapepoints of attachmentnumber of divisionslocationdirection of fiberssize
the fibers of this muscle found in the ventral abdominal wall form a “V”
the fibers of this muscle, located just beneath the external oblique, form an inverted “V” (a teepee).
innermost of the muscles of the ventral abdominal wall, its fibers go transversely (horizontally).
head musclesBroad flat tendon which joins the Frontalis
galea aponeurotica Occipitofrontalis (epicranius)
study of muscles; all are used for movement of and within the body
three types of muscle
(muscle)heart only, moves involuntary, slightly striated
(muscle) – in organs of body, involuntary movement, smooth, single nucleus per muscle cell
visceral (smooth) muscle
(muscle) striated (connected with tendons or ligaments), multi nucleated, voluntary, used for flexing and extending
the bulky, fleshy part of the muscle which shortens and thickens during contraction
body or belly
muscles of mastication (4)chewer muscle; close mouth and clench teeth
muscles of mastication (4)– fan shaped muscle located on the squamous portion of the temporal bone; close mandible; as well as protrude the mandible. Clench teeth; retract lower jaw
muscles of mastication (4)opens and protrudes mandible; moves mandible side to side
lateral (external) pterygoid
name from most superficial to most deep, or outer to inner the direction of fibers
external obliqueinternal obliquetransverse abdominus
(LG) breast muscles
(SM) breast muscles
(LG) top or most superficial butt muscle
(SM) butt muscle just below madius
(LG) upper thigh, boundary of femoral triangle
(SHORT) upper thigh
another name for short
calf muscle, large in terms of size
cause goose bumps; small in terms of size; circular; at bottom of hair shaft
arrector pili muscles
muscles of the head
occipitafrontalis (epicranius)- galea aponeuroticamuscles of the mastication (chewing and swallowing)massetertemporalislateral (external) pterygoidmedial (internal) pterygoid
muscles of the neck and trunk
neckplatysmaomophoidsternocleidomastoidtrunk(back muscles)trapeziuslatissimus dorsichestpectoralis majorexternal intercostalsinternal intersostalsabdomen(anterolateral wall)external obliqueinternal obliquetransverse abdominus(anteromedial wall)rectus abdominus(posterior wall)psoas major (iliopsoas)diaphragm (phrenic muscle)openingsespohageal orificeaortic orificeinferior vena caval orifice
muscles of upper extremities
shoulder musclesdeltoidteres majorarm muscles (between shoulder and elbow)biceps brachiicoracobrachialisbrachialistriceps brachiiforearm muscles (between elbow and wrist)ventral aspect (medial to lateral)flexor carpi ulnarisflexor digitorum superficialisflexor carpi radialisdorsal aspectsuperficial: brachiradialisdeep: remember that as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand
muscles of mastication (4)closes and protrudes mandible
medial (internal) pterygoid
muscles of the neck (3)flat thin muscle (paper thin) of the neck, tense or wrinkle skin of neck and depresses lower jaw
muscles of the neck (3)depress and lower the hyoid bone
muscles of the neck (3)mark the widest part of the neck, used to rotate and extend the head; anatomical guide for embalming in carotid (neck) area**** forms the lateral boundary of the anterior cervical triangle
diamond shaped muscle of upper back; used to elevate or shrug shoulders
large flat muscle of lower back
largest muscle of upper chest region; used to flex and adduct arm
draws ribs together; outermost muscle between ribs
draws ribs together; innermost muscle between ribs
Another system within the body which is lesser known than the blood vascular system is known as the
lymph vascular system
dealing with a system of vessels
two vascular systems within the body
blood and lymph
The substance which ONLY flows through the lymph vessels. (spring like) - a substance in the body which ALWAYS forms or BEGINS from tissue fluid.
The substance which bathes and surrounds the body cells.
The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels called
functions of the Lymph Vascular System
a. Maintain proper tissue fluid balance.b. Helps to remove other waste products.c. One of the body’s basic defense systems (phagocytosis, antibodies).
Specialized types of tissue strategically placed throughout the human body
three pairs of lymphoid tissue, including the adenoids, which protect the opening between the mouth cavity proper and oropharynx (throat).
--The largest mass of Lymphoid Tissue in the human body.--Located in the Abdominal Pelvic Cavity. --Helps the liver to recycle red blood cells.
A mass of lymphoid tissue. The LARGEST and MOST ACTIVE during INFANCY. Located at the BASE OF THE NECK. Produces antibodies for the rest of a person’s life called T-CELLS. This gland will shrink with age
Filters for lymph. They are strategically placed in the human body. There are four (4) specific locations.• All are named for their location.
located in the ARM PIT region.These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the UPPER EXTREMITIES and the PECTORAL REGION (chest). Used to detect or stage the level of malignancy in BREAST CANCER.
axillary lymph nodes
located in the NECK region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the HEAD AND NECK. Used to detect HODGIKN'S DISEASE.
cervical lymph nodes
located in the GROIN region. These lymph nodes filter lymph originating from the LOWER extremities. (BUBONIC PLAGUE)
inguinal lymph nodes
located in the INTESTINES. These lymph originating from the INTESTINAL TRACK OR BOTH LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINES. Used to detect stages of COLON CANCER
mesentric lymph nodes
the waxy, milky substance which is formed by the union of digestive fats with lymph. (fat mix with lymph)
when chyle comes from the small intestine and lymph comes from the lower extremities, the two get together at a temporary enlarged pouch called a
the flow of chlye begins where?
in the lacteals
what color is lymph?
clear, straw colored, or may have an amber color (yellow tent)
small finger like projections in the small intestine by which increases the surface area over which food could be absorbed. a single one contains three structures (vein, artery, and lacteal)
it is estimated that what percentage of the digestive fat that is absorbed in the small intestine will go into the lymph capillary
a special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine
two large main ducts or passageways for lymph that are the ONLY ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the bloodstream.
thoracic ductright lymphatic duct
the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the LEFT upper extremities, LEFT side of the head and neck, LEFT side of the chest, the ENTIRE abdominal cavity, and BOTH lower extremities will drain through this duct.
- second largest lymph duct that only originates on the RIGHT side of the head and neck. The RIGHTupper extremities, and RIGHT side of the thoracic cavity will eventually drain through this duct
right lymphatic duct
Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called __________
General Characteristics of BLOOD
ph of bloodviscosity (thickness)temperature of blood
ph of blood
7.3 - 7.4 slightly alkaline
- a measure of the resistance to the flow of a liquid
Blood moves _______ times thicker than _______
4 1/2 to 5 1/2water
Temperature of blood
100.3 Fslightly warmer than normal body temperature of 98.6 F
general composition of human blood
plasma 55%corpuscles 45%
(Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.
45% of whole human blood
name the four types of lymphoid tissue
tonsilsspleenthymus glandlymph nodes
a large pouch
the flow of chyle end at the cisteria chyli and becomes lymph
its flow goes in one directionits flow in humans will eventually go into the blood systemits flow is very sluggish and is accomplished by muscle contraction
once lymph enter the _________ __________, it will flow in ONLY __________ direction(s) by means of slightly larger ________ ___________. From the __________, the lymph will move to the ________ _________ which are strategically placed for filter of lymph. Once at the ________ _________, there are ____ large main ducts or passageways for lymph in the human body ____________________________
lymph capillariesonelymph vesselsvesselslymph nodeslymph nodestworight lymphatic duct thoracic duct
components of plasma
92 % water8 % dissolved substances
(Components of plasma)blood proteins (clotting process)
serum albuminserum globulinfibrinogen
aids in forming the fibrous net which prevents you from bleeding to death
non protein components of plasma
salts, nutrients, gases, hormones, clotting factors, enzymes, and antibodies
non protein salt components of plasma
non protein nutrient components of plasma
food glucose (blood sugar)lipids-fats
primary constituent of urine
essential clotting factor of plasma
speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process
dissolved within the plasma portion of blood
name the three groups of formal elements of blood
red blood cells
white blood cells
most numerous of the corpuscles found in the formed element portion of the blood. 7 microns in diameter
bioncave disc shaped; DO NOT have a nucleus, 4.5 to 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood; crenation and hemolysis; originate in bone marrow, 120 day lifespan; destroyed in the liver and the spleenThere only function is to carry hemoglobin.
a protein molecule to which oxygen initially attaches itself in the lungs
the shrinking of red blood cells when placed in hypertonic solution
the bursting or rupturing of a red blood cell when placed in a hypotonic solution
only function of the erythrocytes
to carry hemoglobin
least numerous of the corpuscles, white blood cells, 5000-9000 per cubic millimeter of blood,
name the two types of leukocytes and their subtypes
agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes)granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophil)
type of white blood cells that do not contain granules in their protoplasm
type of agranulocyte that has a large, single nucleus without granules in them. Responsible for production of antibodies in all living things
type of agranulocyte also called scavenger cells. They are shipped by the body where a scar has formed to rid the body of pus so scab can form
type of white blood cells that do contain granules in their protoplasm
type of granulocyte; most numerous of the white blood cells. Greatest quantity (65%) White blood cell count. Has granules within its protoplasm when the cells are stained it is not exposed to any color- no color- it is neutrally stained. Its function is to perform phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.
the type of granulocytes that stain red in the laboratory setting
type of granulocytes; the least numerous of the white blood cells. Its granules will stain blue. This cell is what causes people to have allergic reactions
Functions of white blood cells
defense of the body against infection by diapedesis and phagocytosis
- have the ability to squeeze themselves through pores of the capillaries and perform phagocytosis - surround, ingest and destroy the infection.
- looks like fragments of cells. Purpose is initiate or begin clotting process.
Thrombocytes – (platelets)
fragmented cells, 300,000 per cubic millimeter; normal coagulation time: 3-5 minutes; plasma vs. serum
the liquid portion of non-clotted blood
the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted
function of thrombocytes
clotting of blood, to initiate the clotting process.
Chemistry of clotting blood
a) Fragmentation of platelets released a chemical called thromboplastin.b) Thromboplastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin.c) Prothrombin unites with calcium to form thrambin.d) Thrambin and fibrinogen from fibrin.e) Fibrin and blood cells form the clot within three to five minutes.
Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.
a) Thromboplastin (thromborinase) (cephalin) b) Prothrombin c) Calcium CA d) Fibrinogen
Substance naturally in the blood that by themselves will inhibit blood from clotting.
Origin of the thrombocytes
function of blood
a. Transport – O2, CO2, food, waste, hormonesb. Temperature regulation – 98.6c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than ½ or deathe. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)
the active chemical substance present in the secretion of endocrine glands
OCCIPITALFRONTALIS (OPICRANIUS)MASSETERTEMPORALISLATERAL (EXTERNAL) PTERYGOIDMEDIAL (INTERNAL) PTERYGOID
broad flat tendon attaching muscle to muscle
chewing and swallowing
MASTICATION & DEGLUDINATION
TRUNK/TORSO major muscles
back muscleschest musclesabdomen musclesdiaphragm muscles
MAJOR CHEST MUSCLES
PECTORALIS MAJOREXTERNAL INTERCOSTALSINTERNAL INTERCOSTALS
ANTEROLATERAL WALLANTEROMEDIAL WALLPOSTERIOR WALL
ANTEROLATERAL WALL (abdomen) muscles
EXTERNAL OBLIQUEINTERNAL OBLIQUETRANSVERSE ABDOMINUS
ANTEROMEDIAL WALL (abdomen) muscle
POSTERIOR WALL (abdomen) muscle
PSOAS MAJOR (ILIOPSOAS)
to flex and medially rotate the thigh; guide to raise the iliac artery; *(can be counted as 3 muscles or 1 muscle depending on anatomist)
PSOAS MAJOR (ILIOPSOAS)
major muscle for breathing, both exhaling and inhaling
DIAPHRAGM (PHRENIC MUSCLE)
OPENINGS of DIAPHRAGM
ESOPHAGEAL ORIFICE AORTIC ORIFICEINFERIOR VENA CAVAL ORIFICE
opening thru which esophagus passes
opening thru which aorta (largest artery) passes
opening for (IVC), largest vein in body, named by angle/direction not by size
INFERIOR VENA CAVAL ORIFICE
UPPER EXTREMITIES muscles
SHOULDER MUSCLESARM MUSCLESFOREARM MUSCLES
abduction of the arm, move arm away from medial plane, triangle shape gives roundness/firmness of the arm
muscle to adduct and medially rotate the arm, largest muscle in terms of size
(between shoulder and elbow)
BICEPT BRACHII CORACOBRACHIALISBRACHIALIS TRICEPS BRACHII
(between elbow and wrist)
FOREARM MUSCLE VENTRAL ASPECTlisted medial to lateral,
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARISFLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALISFLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
function of all is to flex and pronate the hands
FOREARM MUSCLEVENTRAL ASPECT
most medial ventral muscle of forearm
FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS
the ulnar artery lies LATERAL to the tendon of the...
flexor carpi ulnaris
most prominent tendon seen at the middle of the wrist
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS
the ulnar artery lies MEDIAL to the tendon of the
FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS
most lateral ventral muscle of the forearm
FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
DORSAL ASPECT of Forearm MusclesSUPERFICIALLY:
as a group, they aid in extension and supination of the hand
LOWER EXTREMITIES MUSCLES
GLUTEAL REGION THIGH MUSCLELEG MUSCLES
(between hip and knee
front of femoral area
ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES
ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES
SARTORIUS QUADRICEPTS FEMORIS
forms lateral boundary of femoral triangle, longest muscle in body, used to cross legs;common name is tailor’s muscle
ANTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLESMEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES
4 headed muscle in the thigh region. Located in the front of the thigh
PARTS OF QUADRICEPTS FEMORIS
RECTUS FEMORIS VASTUS LATERALISVASTUS MEDIALISVASTUS INTERMEDIUS
close to midline; bring the body toward the medial plane; adduct the thigh
MEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES
MEDIAL FEMORAL MUSCLES
ADDUCTOR LONGUSADDUCTOR MAGNUS
longest adductor muscle; serves as medial boundary of the femoral triangle
largest of the adductor muscle serves as the anatomical limit between femoral blood vessels; located superior to the blood vessels at the opening of the adductor magnus
in back; hamstring group, common in basketball injuries
POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLES
POSTERIOR FEMORAL MUSCLESall three of these used to extend the thigh
2 headed muscle; one of the 3 most lateral posterior muscles of the thigh; when flexed, you can feel tendon
used to tense your knee tendon of the knee stands out when you tense your knee
most medial muscle of the posterior of the thigh
(between knee and ankle
ANTERIOR MUSCLES: TIBIALIS ANTERIORPOSTERIOR MUSCLES: CALCANEAL TENDON
posterior leg muscles
calf muscle...large fleshy muscle (Charlie horse)
planter flexion, point the toe downwardwalk on tiptoe (dancers toes)
The space between the lungs where the heart and great blood vessels is housed.
Referring exclusive to the upper chambers of the human heart
A single upper chamber of the human heart
four (4) distinct chambers of the heart
Right Atrium - Left Atrium - Right Ventricle - Left Ventricle-
The upper right chamber of the heart
The upper left chamber of the heart
The lower right chamber of the heart
The lower left chamber of the heart
the natural opening present between the upper chambers of the fetal heart. Allows the fetal lungs to develop
the oval shaped shallow depression best seen in the right atrium of an adult heart. This is formed where the foramen ovale used to be located.
two lower chambers of the human heart. They are larger in capacity than the upper chambers
Two structures only found in the ventricles of the heart:
Papillary muscles - Chordae tendineae -
finger like muscles only found within the ventricles of the heart. Used to regulate or control specific heart valves.
look like little pieces of string called tendious cords. Attach papillary muscles to individual sections (cusps) of the heart valve which they control.
individual sections of a human heart valve
four major valves in the heart
Tricuspid valve - Pulmonary (semilunar) valve - Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve -Aortic (semilunar) valve -
consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps - control the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle. Regulated or controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae which are only found in the right ventricle of the heart.
consist of 3 distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk. Relies on backflow of blood to fill up the cusps to prevent it from going back into the chamber.
pulmonary (semilunar) valve
the only heart valve that consists of two distinct sections or cusps. Controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle. The papillary muscles and chordae tendineae controls this valve and are only located in the left ventricle of the lower chamber of the heart.
bicuspid (mitral) valve
consists of three distinct cusps or sections. Controls the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta. Similar to the pulmonary (semilunar) valve, it relies on the backflow of blood to fill up the three cusps of this opening and close the valve.
aortic (semilunar) valve
Which two heart valves are controlled by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?
Tricuspid valve Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve
Layers in the walls of the heart (innermost to outermost).
Endocardium – .Myocardium - Pericardium – (peri- around)
the innermost layer of the heart. This is the layer in which the heart valves are made. Makes up the cusps of the heart valve
the muscle layer of the heart. It is thickest in the left ventricle. The last chamber to receive oxygenated blood from the heart to the entire body.
the sack surrounding the heart.
two types of pericardium
visceral pericardiumparietal pericardium
that part of the pericardium directly attached to the heart
outermost layer of the heart and the layer of the pericardium closest to the body wall.
second largest vein in the human body. It will eventually drain any blood coming from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thoracic region.
superior vena cava
the largest vein in the human body. It eventually drains blood from the lower extremities and abdomen
inferior vena cava
is the key chamber to establish drainage in embalming.
the large vein which drains blood from the heart itself
carry blood high in oxygen away from the heart of a living human. They become smaller away from the heart
start small and become larger closer to the heart. carries blood low in oxygen toward the heart.
- the opening of the superior vena cava (the angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - superiorly or top) (SVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart.
superior vena cava orifice
(Angle it enters the right atrium of the heart - inferiorly or bottom). The opening of the inferior vena cava (IVC) directly into the right atrium of the heart
inferior vena cava orifice
the opening located between the right atrium and right ventricle. In turn controlled by the tricuspid valve
Right atrioventricular orifice
the opening located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Only controlled by the bicuspid or mitral valve
Left atrioventricular orifice
the opening of the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium of the heart.
Coronary sinus orifice
the four opening of the pulmonary veins directly into the atrium of the heart.
Pulmonary vein orifices
the opening located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
Pulmonary trunk orifice
the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta (the largest artery in the human body)
right ventricle and left atrium- the two way exchange of blood between the heart and the lungs
The only two chambers of the heart involved in pulmonary circulation are the ______ and the __________The _________ is the chamber of the heart in which pulmonary circulation begins. The__________ is where pulmonary circulation ends.
right ventricle left atriumright ventricleleft atrium
left ventricle and right atrium- the two way exchange between the heart and the rest of the body except for the lungs
The only two chambers involved in systemic circulation are the ________ and the ________. The__________ of the heart is where systemic circulation begins. The _________ is where systemic circulation ends. Systemic circulation would include a study of an openings of the heart valves, orifices of the heart, an arteries or veins of the body that are involved in this two way exchange of blood and the body, EXCEPT THE LUNGS
left ventricleright atriumleft ventricleright atrium
oval shaped opening naturally present between the atria or upper chambers of the fetal heart
oval shaped shallow depression of the heart, best seen in the right atrium of the adult heart. These changes need to occur shortly after birth.
- a passageway for blood, located between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, in fetal circulation. Designed to shunt or bypass shipment to the fetal lungs
adult counterpart structure of ductus arteriosus. It should turn into a ligament shortly after birth. It shouldn’t carry blood after you are born
A single vein present in fetal circulation designed to shunt or bypass shipment of blood the fetal liver
is the adult counterpart structure of the ductus venosus. It should turn a ligament shortly after birth
two arteries of fetal circulation that carry blood low in oxygen and high in waste products from the fetus to the placenta
– the adult counterpart of the two umbilical arteries.
Lateral umbilical ligaments
the single vein which conveys blood high in oxygen and useable food substances from the placenta to the fetus
the adult counterpart of the umbilical vein
Ligamentum teres of the liver
Layers of Blood vessels (Arteries) -Outer most to inner most
Tunica adventitia (tunica externa) Tunica media (muscle layer) Tunica intima (interna) .
outer most layer of the three layers (elastic tissue) of blood vessels. Function is to allow the embalmer to stretch the vessel to the surface.
Tunica adventitia (tunica externa)
middle layer of a three layer blood vessel. Known as smooth (visceral) muscles. Allow for shipment of blood.
Tunica media (muscle layer)
inner most layer. The only layer continuous, which means it is found in every blood vessel of the human body
Tunica intima (interna)
a three layered blood vessels that carries blood HIGH in oxygen away from the heart of a living person.
As arteries move away from the heart they lose which layer?
tunica adventitia layer
(tiny arteries) - a two layer blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart of a living person. Only contains tunica media and tunica intima
As the artery continues to move away from the heart the next (2nd) layer lost is?
tunica media (muscle layer)
a single layered blood vessel. Only contains tunica intimaIt is at this point that the arterial portion of the blood vascular system unites with the venous portion of the blood vascular system and the process reverse.In Reverse - The tunica media (muscle layer) reappears
(a tiny vein) -two layered blood vessel carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. The Tunica adventitia (externa) then reappears
three layered blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart of a living person
Layers making up a vein are ________ than that of an artery.
The capillary level is where life occurs. The walls are so thin blood has to line up to pass. Veins are the suction side as blood moves toward the heart of a living person. Veins start small and as the venule or tunica media (muscle layer) reappears, it leaves a two layer vein carrying blood to the heart. As blood continues, the tunica intima (interna), third layer, or vein reappears carrying blood toward the heart of a living person. Layers of a vein are thinner and can be ruptured more easily. 85% of blood shifts to the venous side of the body following death. Veins are equipped with valves to prevent the back flow of blood going towards the heart of a living person from going to the lowest point to prevent the back flow.
blood vessels that feed the outer layers of arteries, arterioles, veins, and venules. This is the red squiggly line found on blood vessels by which to differentiate an artery from a nerve.
alternate (secondary) route of blood flow
normal blood pressure
top number of a blood pressure reading. the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the ventricles
bottom number of a blood pressure reading. the resting phase of the cardiac cycle. Contraction of the two small atria (upper chambers)
low in oxygen blood; most important in embalming to establish and maintain drainage.
receives blood from the lungs
pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen
largest and strongest muscle of the heart; last pump of blood with oxygen to the body via arteries
venous side; blood low in oxygen
artery side; blood high in oxygen
Large artery which first ships blood low in oxygen from the heart toward the lungs
the largest artery in the human body.
The plural cavity only surrounds the
Feed the left/right anterior (front) portion of the cerebrum or brain tissue.
Left/Right anterior cerebral artery
Does not feed any specific part of brain tissue. Its purpose is to communicate or join the right/left internal carotid artery to the right/left posterior cerebral artery.
Right/Left posterior communicating artery
feed the right/left posterior portion of cerebrum or brain tissue.
Right/Left posterior cerebral artery
The only single/unpaired artery. Does not feed any specific part of brain tissue. Its purpose is to communicate or join the left and right anterior cerebral artery to each other. Its entire length is involved in making up the circle. Without it, we wouldn't have a complete ring.
Anterior communicating artery (NAPPY HEAD LONELY DUDE!!)
the union or joining together of blood vessels
List the arteries involved in making up the Circle of Willis
Right & Left Internal Carotid ArteriesRight & Left Posterior Communicating ArteriesRight & Left Posterior Cerebral ArteriesRight & Left Anterior Cerebral ArteriesAnterior Communicating Artery (NAPPY HEAD LONELY DUDE!!)
5 branches of Facial Side (from most lateral to most superiorly)Hint:SomeLadyFoundMyStuff
1. Superior thyroid artery - the first branch of the external carotid artery to rise on the facial side. Feeds the superior portion of the thyroid gland. 2. Lingual artery - the second branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. Feeds the tongue. 3. Facial artery - the third branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. For testing purposes, the facial artery is the most important branch off the external carotid artery during embalming because it feeds the face - the cheeks, lips, mouth, nose, and eyelids. It passes behind the mandible or lower jaw. 4. Maxillary artery - the fourth branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side. Feeds the maxilla or upper jaw, the upper teeth, and the majority of the muscles of mastication. 5. Superficial temporal artery - the fifth branch of the external carotid artery on the facial side and most superior artery that feeds the forehead region. The forehead region - the anterior 1/3 of a person’s scalp that is fed by the superficial temporal artery.
3 branches of Auricular SideHint:AssumeOuter Positions
1. Ascending pharyngeal artery - the first branch to rise off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. Feeds the pharynx (throat) and the soft palate (roof of the mouth that consists of soft tissue).2. Occipital Artery - the second branch off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. Feeds the occipital region (back of the head). The occipital region- The posterior 1/3 of a person’s scalp is fed by the occipital artery.3. Posterior auricular artery - the third branch off the external carotid artery on the auricular side. This is the most superior branch on the auricular side. It travels behind the ear. Feeds the middle (lateral) 1/3 of the scalp.
(deep brachial artery) branch off the brachial artery that feeds the triceps brachii muscles.
A circle of arteries that feed the cerebrum (the largest part of brain tissue).
Circle of Willis
The Circle of Willis is also called...
the point on either side of the neck, at which each common carotid artery terminates by splitting into an (1) Internal carotid artery (feeds inside the skull)(2) External carotid artery (feeds the outside of the skull)
It is a continuation of the Right Common Carotid Artery. The largest sized artery that bring blood to base of the brain.
Right/Left internal carotid artery
branch off subclavian artery off the left/right. Which goes superiorly
Left/right vertebral artery