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Flashcards in Chemistry Test 1 Deck (189):
1

The branch of natural science that is concerned with the description and classification of matter, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes.

chemistry

2

anything which occupies space and possesses mass.

matter

3

all matter possesses_____

mass

4

only matter on earth possesses ____________

weight

5

matter on earth possesses weight because of....

gravity

6

5 divisions of chemistry

1. inorganic
2. organic
3. biochemistry
4. embalming chemistry
5. thanatochemistry

7

study of physical and chemical changes in the body that are caused by death. (The chemistry of death)

thanatochemistry

8

study of types of matter and changes in matter in relationship to the temporary preservation and disinfecting of remains.

The study of chemical post-mortem changes, the composition of embalming fluids, and the interactions between them.

embalming chemistry

9

the chemistry of living organisms or compounds produced by living organisms.

That branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms.

biochemistry

10

study of matter which does not contain carbon.

That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding carbon. The absence or lack of carbon.

inorganic

11

study of compounds which contain the element carbon. The capital letter C represents the single element of carbon.

The branch of chemistry that deals with carbon-containing compounds, carbon based compounds.

organic

12

4 types of chemical measurements

1. meter
2. liter
3. kilogram
4. heat

13

chemical measurements are usually in_______

metric system

14

meter is the standard metric unit for____________

length

15

liter is the standard unit of ____________

volume

16

calorie stands for ______

heat

17

the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree Celsius at 15 degrees Celsius

Standard temperature & pressure (STP)

18

Scales to measure temperature...

1. Fahrenheit
2. Celsius
3. Kelvin

19

F stands for

Fahrenheit

20

C stands for

Celsius

21

Celsius can also be called....

centigrade

22

no negative temps can exist on what scale?

Kelvin

23

known freezing point of water on each scale...

F- 32 degrees
C- 0 degrees
K- 273k

24

known boiling point of water on each scale...

F- 212 degrees
C- 100 degrees
K- 373k

25

characteristics by which substances may be identified.

properties

26

properties of a substance that you can see or observe WITHOUT A CHANGE in chemical composition

physical properties

27

4. physical properties of matter

1. State
2. Solubility
3. Density
4. Specific gravity

28

state of matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas

29

the measure of how well two substances mix.

solubility

30

generally if something is soluble it will __________________-

dissolve in water

31

the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.

density

32

matter divided by volume equals...

density

33

a ratio of densities with water as a standard

specific gravity

34

the density of blood is slightly more than...

water

35

A characteristic that can be seen or observed when a substance is interacting with other substances resulting in a change in chemical composition.

chemical properties

36

chemical properties of matter

1. combustibility
2. reactivity

37

can cause a change in chemical composition

combustibility

38

physical changes in matters

1. changes in state
2. solvation

39

solid to liquid

changes in state of matter

40

solid to a dissolved state (dissolving)

solvation

41

A change in the form or the state of matter without any change in chemical composition.

Physical changes

42

Changes in which a new substance or substances are formed because the chemical composition has changed.

Chemical changes

43

chemical changes of matter

1. cremation of remains
2. decomposition of remains
3. embalming of remains

44

physical states of matter

1. gases
2. liquids
3. solids

45

properties of gases

1. liquefaction
2. condensation
3. vaporization
4. diffusion

46

The state of matter in which the atoms or molecules move about in almost complete freedom from one other.

gases

47

gases have no definite______________

shape or volume

48

gases will assume the _______ & ____________ of the container in which they are located.

shape
volume

49

not all gases can be ______________________-

seen or smelled

50

the conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid.

Liquefaction

51

a change in a state of matter from a gas to a liquid.

Condensation

52

the physical change from a liquid into a gas.

Vaporization

53

the movement of particles in solution from an area of higher concentration to lesser concentration until equal or uniform concentration is achieved.

Diffusion

54

Substances that flow readily, but tend to not expand indefinitely.

liquids

55

thickness – measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid.

Viscosity

56

the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area.

Surface tension

57

movement of a liquid from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.

Diffusion

58

the conversion of a liquid or gas into a solid form (water to an ice cube)

Solidification

59

the process by which a substance is given definite form. (between water and ice cube) Goes from outside-in

Crystallization

60

conversion of a liquid to a solid

Freezing

61

rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor or gaseous state by forming bubbles through the action of heat.

Boiling

62

properties of liquids

1. viscosity
2. surface tension
3. diffusion
4. solidification
5. crystallization
6. freezing
7. boiling

63

properties of solids

1. melting
2. sublimation

64

The condensed state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume.

solids

65

types of matter based on COMPOSITION

1. elements
2. compounds
3. mixture

66

Simple substances which cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means.

elements

67

property of elements

1. atom
2. ion
3. name & symbol
4. types

68

the simplest part or particle of any element that still retains properties of the element. Very small

atom

69

an atom of any element that has a single positive or negative charge.

ion

70

ion is also called...

monatomic ion

71

abbreviation of an element

symbol

72

a symbol will ALWAYS begin with...____________ and have a max of ___ letters

a capital letter
3

73

only the FIRST letter for ANY element will be------

capitalized

74

large letter by itself represents ONE atom

symbol

75

small number written to the right and below the symbol.
Represents the total number of atoms of an element

subscript

76

number to the right and above the symbol of the element to represent that this element has a charge.

superscript

77

with a superscript there will ALWAYS be a ___ or a ____ in front of it.

plus
minus

78

every element is electrically _________

neutral

79

the reactivity for all elements of the periodic table is determined by the number of _____________ charged particles they have floating around in their ________________

negatively
outer shell

80

the outer shell of an element is the.....

valence shell

81

types of elements

1. metal
2. non-metal

82

there are more metallic or metal elements than....

non-metals

83

all metals are solid except.....

mercury

84

mercury is a ____________

liquid

85

metals are shinny, lustrous, conduct electricity and heat...it is ____________ or _________

malleable
ductile

86

can be formed into long sheets

malleable

87

can be stretched into wire

ductile

88

metals are good conductors of __________

electricity

89

most metals are located on the _____________ side of the periodic table

left

90

metals tend to be_____

positive ions charges

91

any element that is not a metal

non-metals

92

non-metals are located on the _________ side of the periodic table

right

93

non-metals tend to have _____________

negative charges

94

Substances that consist of 2 or more atoms chemically combined in definite proportions by weight

Compounds

95

properties of compounds

1. molecules
2. formula

96

(smallest unit of a compound that can exist alone and still retain properties of that compound). Including diatomic

molecules

97

2 or more atoms of the same element that unite together to form a compound

diatomic compound

98

abbreviation for any compound

formula

99

examples of compounds...

1. acids
2. bases
3. salts
4. oxides

100

a compound which has a pH below 7. It is acidic.

acids

101

compounds that have a pH above 7. It is alkaline.

bases

102

compounds which are formed in the reaction between acids and bases other than water.

salts

103

compounds consisting of 2 or more elements...one of which is oxygen.

oxides

104

an atom is to an element what a molecule is to a __________

compound

105

A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined and are not in definite proportion by weight.

mixture

106

examples of mixtures

1. air
2. embalming fluids
3. blood

107

ability of a system or material to do work

energy

108

types of energy

1. potential
2. kinetic

109

energy of motion

kinetic energy

110

energy which is stored

potential energy

111

the gods of the periodic table are known as the _________________________

noble or inert gases

112

horizontal rows across the periodic table are known as.....

periods or series

113

elements begin with number _____ and continue in order

one

114

vertical columns use numbers _________ or Roman numerals. These VERTICAL columns are called....

1-8
groups or families

115

the group number represent the total number of __________ orbiting in the outer most shell around that elements

electrons

116

the valence shell is also called...

outer most shell
orbit

117

the max number of electrons located in the valence or outer shell is ______

8

118

in chemistry there is a tendency to gain

equilibrium

119

even though every element in its free state is electrically neutral that does not mean they are _______ in their free state. They want to be electrically more ______

happy
stable

120

an atom is composed of a _________________ that has particles contained within it called ________ & _______________

central nucleus
protons
neutrons

121

a third particle called an electron which has a __________ charge moves around the atom in its outer orbit or shells

negative 1

122

the number of protons located in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.

atomic number

123

an atomic number will always be a ______________ never a ___________--

whole number
percentage

124

although a neutron has no charge, they do have __________

mass

125

the number written below the symbol is the

atomic weight

126

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons contained in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.

atomic weight

127

Elements that differ only in terms of atomic weight but have the same atomic number are known as

isotopes

128

To determine the number of neutrons for any element, take the _________ and subtract the _________________

atomic number

129

protons have a ____________ charge

positive

130

shells can contain up to _______ eletrons

32

131

the inner most shell of any element has a max capacity of ____ electrons

2

132

the max number of electrons in the valence or outermost shell is ____

8

133

the max number of electrons you can ever gain or lose in any element is ______

4

134

any atom that gains or loses electrons are called......

ions

135

most metals lose...

electrons

136

most non-metals gain....

electrons

137

# OF PROTONS + # OF NEUTRONS =

atomic weight

138

ATOMIC WEIGHT – ATOMIC NUMBER =

# OF NEUTRONS

139

The smallest particle of an element is called the ______

atom.

140

All atoms are composed of a central _______ with protons and neutrons.

nucleus

141

The electrons move around the nucleus i

orbits or shells.

142

The identity of elements are made by assignment of an _____________ which is identical to the number of protons in the nucleus.

atomic number

143

_____________have no electrical charge - however, they serve to offer stability to a nucleus.

neutrons

144

atoms may join together to form

molecules

145

atoms of the same element which have identical chemical properties but different atomic weights are called _______

isotopes

146

for any specific atom, the electrons in the outermost shell are called ________ electrons

valence

147

atoms that are electrically charged because of a gain or loss of electrons are called....

ions

148

the net attractive interaction between two atoms in a single molecule creates a ___________________

chemical bond

149

______________ have a strong tendency to change from an unstable form with an incomplete outer shell to a more stable form with a complete outer shell with filled orbitals

ions

150

those things which hold elements together to form new substances are called __________

chemical bonds

151

compounds in which the atoms are held together by ionic bonds are called _________________________

ionic compounds

152

these determine an element's chemical reactivity (properties)

valence electrons

153

when electrons are shared between atoms, a condition of ________________________ occurs

covalent bonding

154

protons have a _____ charge and are located ______

+1
in the nucleus

155

electrons have a ______ charge and are located ______

-1
in shell or outer orbit

156

neutrons have a _____ charge and are located ______

0
in the nucleus

157

helium has an atomic number of ______ and atomic weight of ______

2
4

158

helium contains ___ protons, _____ electrons, & _____ neutrons

2
2
2

159

carbon has an atomic number of _____ and an atomic weight of ____

6
12

160

carbon contains ___ protons, ___ electrons, & ___ neutrons

6
6
6

161

nitrogen has an atomic number of ____ and an atomic weight of _____

7
14

162

nitrogen contains ____ protons, _____ electrons, & ____ neutrons

7
7
7

163

Beryllium has 4 protons and 5 neutrons:

How many electrons does Beryllium have:

What is the atomic number of Beryllium:

What is the atomic weight of Beryllium:

4
4
9

164

Fluorine has 9 protons and 10 neutrons:

How many electrons does Fluorine have:

What is the atomic number of Fluorine:

What is the atomic weight of Fluorine:

9
9
19

165

abbreviation for a chemical change...

chemical equation

166

number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula is called...

coefficient

167

number written to the right and slightly below a symbol or formula is called...

subscript

168

formulas are usually expressed as the _____________ portion written first, and a non-metallic portion written last

metallic

169

_________ usually have positive oxidation numbers

metals

170

usually have negative oxidation numbers

non-metals

171

Al

aluminum

172

Br

Bromine

173

Ca

Calcium

174

C

Carbon

175

Cl

Chlorine

176

Cu

Copper

177

F

Fluorine

178

He

Helium

179

H

Hydrogen

180

I

Iodine

181

Fe

Iron

182

Hg

Mercury

183

N

Nitrogen

184

O

Oxygen

185

P

Phosphorous

186

K

Potassium

187

Na

Sodium

188

S

Sulfur

189

The simplest type of matter based on composition is what we call _____________ .

ELEMENTS