Flashcards in Chemistry Test 1 Deck (189):
The branch of natural science that is concerned with the description and classification of matter, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes.
anything which occupies space and possesses mass.
all matter possesses_____
only matter on earth possesses ____________
matter on earth possesses weight because of....
5 divisions of chemistry
4. embalming chemistry
study of physical and chemical changes in the body that are caused by death. (The chemistry of death)
study of types of matter and changes in matter in relationship to the temporary preservation and disinfecting of remains.
The study of chemical post-mortem changes, the composition of embalming fluids, and the interactions between them.
the chemistry of living organisms or compounds produced by living organisms.
That branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms.
study of matter which does not contain carbon.
That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding carbon. The absence or lack of carbon.
study of compounds which contain the element carbon. The capital letter C represents the single element of carbon.
The branch of chemistry that deals with carbon-containing compounds, carbon based compounds.
4 types of chemical measurements
chemical measurements are usually in_______
meter is the standard metric unit for____________
liter is the standard unit of ____________
calorie stands for ______
the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree Celsius at 15 degrees Celsius
Standard temperature & pressure (STP)
Scales to measure temperature...
F stands for
C stands for
Celsius can also be called....
no negative temps can exist on what scale?
known freezing point of water on each scale...
F- 32 degrees
C- 0 degrees
known boiling point of water on each scale...
F- 212 degrees
C- 100 degrees
characteristics by which substances may be identified.
properties of a substance that you can see or observe WITHOUT A CHANGE in chemical composition
4. physical properties of matter
4. Specific gravity
state of matter
the measure of how well two substances mix.
generally if something is soluble it will __________________-
dissolve in water
the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.
matter divided by volume equals...
a ratio of densities with water as a standard
the density of blood is slightly more than...
A characteristic that can be seen or observed when a substance is interacting with other substances resulting in a change in chemical composition.
chemical properties of matter
can cause a change in chemical composition
physical changes in matters
1. changes in state
solid to liquid
changes in state of matter
solid to a dissolved state (dissolving)
A change in the form or the state of matter without any change in chemical composition.
Changes in which a new substance or substances are formed because the chemical composition has changed.
chemical changes of matter
1. cremation of remains
2. decomposition of remains
3. embalming of remains
physical states of matter
properties of gases
The state of matter in which the atoms or molecules move about in almost complete freedom from one other.
gases have no definite______________
shape or volume
gases will assume the _______ & ____________ of the container in which they are located.
not all gases can be ______________________-
seen or smelled
the conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid.
a change in a state of matter from a gas to a liquid.
the physical change from a liquid into a gas.
the movement of particles in solution from an area of higher concentration to lesser concentration until equal or uniform concentration is achieved.
Substances that flow readily, but tend to not expand indefinitely.
thickness – measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid.
the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area.
movement of a liquid from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
the conversion of a liquid or gas into a solid form (water to an ice cube)
the process by which a substance is given definite form. (between water and ice cube) Goes from outside-in
conversion of a liquid to a solid
rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor or gaseous state by forming bubbles through the action of heat.
properties of liquids
2. surface tension
properties of solids
The condensed state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume.
types of matter based on COMPOSITION
Simple substances which cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means.
property of elements
3. name & symbol
the simplest part or particle of any element that still retains properties of the element. Very small
an atom of any element that has a single positive or negative charge.
ion is also called...
abbreviation of an element
a symbol will ALWAYS begin with...____________ and have a max of ___ letters
a capital letter
only the FIRST letter for ANY element will be------
large letter by itself represents ONE atom
small number written to the right and below the symbol.
Represents the total number of atoms of an element
number to the right and above the symbol of the element to represent that this element has a charge.
with a superscript there will ALWAYS be a ___ or a ____ in front of it.
every element is electrically _________
the reactivity for all elements of the periodic table is determined by the number of _____________ charged particles they have floating around in their ________________
the outer shell of an element is the.....
types of elements
there are more metallic or metal elements than....
all metals are solid except.....
mercury is a ____________
metals are shinny, lustrous, conduct electricity and heat...it is ____________ or _________
can be formed into long sheets
can be stretched into wire
metals are good conductors of __________
most metals are located on the _____________ side of the periodic table
metals tend to be_____
positive ions charges
any element that is not a metal
non-metals are located on the _________ side of the periodic table
non-metals tend to have _____________
Substances that consist of 2 or more atoms chemically combined in definite proportions by weight
properties of compounds
(smallest unit of a compound that can exist alone and still retain properties of that compound). Including diatomic
2 or more atoms of the same element that unite together to form a compound
abbreviation for any compound
examples of compounds...
a compound which has a pH below 7. It is acidic.
compounds that have a pH above 7. It is alkaline.
compounds which are formed in the reaction between acids and bases other than water.
compounds consisting of 2 or more elements...one of which is oxygen.
an atom is to an element what a molecule is to a __________
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined and are not in definite proportion by weight.
examples of mixtures
2. embalming fluids
ability of a system or material to do work
types of energy
energy of motion
energy which is stored
the gods of the periodic table are known as the _________________________
noble or inert gases
horizontal rows across the periodic table are known as.....
periods or series
elements begin with number _____ and continue in order
vertical columns use numbers _________ or Roman numerals. These VERTICAL columns are called....
groups or families
the group number represent the total number of __________ orbiting in the outer most shell around that elements
the valence shell is also called...
outer most shell
the max number of electrons located in the valence or outer shell is ______
in chemistry there is a tendency to gain
even though every element in its free state is electrically neutral that does not mean they are _______ in their free state. They want to be electrically more ______
an atom is composed of a _________________ that has particles contained within it called ________ & _______________
a third particle called an electron which has a __________ charge moves around the atom in its outer orbit or shells
the number of protons located in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.
an atomic number will always be a ______________ never a ___________--
although a neutron has no charge, they do have __________
the number written below the symbol is the
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons contained in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.
Elements that differ only in terms of atomic weight but have the same atomic number are known as
To determine the number of neutrons for any element, take the _________ and subtract the _________________
protons have a ____________ charge
shells can contain up to _______ eletrons
the inner most shell of any element has a max capacity of ____ electrons
the max number of electrons in the valence or outermost shell is ____
the max number of electrons you can ever gain or lose in any element is ______
any atom that gains or loses electrons are called......
most metals lose...
most non-metals gain....
# OF PROTONS + # OF NEUTRONS =
ATOMIC WEIGHT – ATOMIC NUMBER =
# OF NEUTRONS
The smallest particle of an element is called the ______
All atoms are composed of a central _______ with protons and neutrons.
The electrons move around the nucleus i
orbits or shells.
The identity of elements are made by assignment of an _____________ which is identical to the number of protons in the nucleus.
_____________have no electrical charge - however, they serve to offer stability to a nucleus.
atoms may join together to form
atoms of the same element which have identical chemical properties but different atomic weights are called _______
for any specific atom, the electrons in the outermost shell are called ________ electrons
atoms that are electrically charged because of a gain or loss of electrons are called....
the net attractive interaction between two atoms in a single molecule creates a ___________________
______________ have a strong tendency to change from an unstable form with an incomplete outer shell to a more stable form with a complete outer shell with filled orbitals
those things which hold elements together to form new substances are called __________
compounds in which the atoms are held together by ionic bonds are called _________________________
these determine an element's chemical reactivity (properties)
when electrons are shared between atoms, a condition of ________________________ occurs
protons have a _____ charge and are located ______
in the nucleus
electrons have a ______ charge and are located ______
in shell or outer orbit
neutrons have a _____ charge and are located ______
in the nucleus
helium has an atomic number of ______ and atomic weight of ______
helium contains ___ protons, _____ electrons, & _____ neutrons
carbon has an atomic number of _____ and an atomic weight of ____
carbon contains ___ protons, ___ electrons, & ___ neutrons
nitrogen has an atomic number of ____ and an atomic weight of _____
nitrogen contains ____ protons, _____ electrons, & ____ neutrons
Beryllium has 4 protons and 5 neutrons:
How many electrons does Beryllium have:
What is the atomic number of Beryllium:
What is the atomic weight of Beryllium:
Fluorine has 9 protons and 10 neutrons:
How many electrons does Fluorine have:
What is the atomic number of Fluorine:
What is the atomic weight of Fluorine:
abbreviation for a chemical change...
number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula is called...
number written to the right and slightly below a symbol or formula is called...
formulas are usually expressed as the _____________ portion written first, and a non-metallic portion written last
_________ usually have positive oxidation numbers
usually have negative oxidation numbers