Flashcards in Chemistry Test 2 Deck (162):
abbreviation for an element
abbreviation for a compound
abbreviation for a chemical change
a whole number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula
a coefficient represents...
number of molecules of that element
a number written to the right and slightly below a symbol or formula
a Subscript represents
total number of atoms in the element
in a chemical equation, the substances which are on the left side of the equation are called...
in a chemical equation, the substances which are on the right side of the equation are called
formulas are usually expressed as the _________ portion written first; and a ___________ portion written last.
__________ usually have positive oxidation numbers; whereas ___________ usually have negative oxidation numbers.
in the expression of formulas, the products are obtained from the ___________; and essence "change partners"- that is _________ to _______ and __________ to _______.
plus to minus
minus to plus
sometimes a group of atoms behaves as if it were a single atom. this group has its own charge and name and is called a ______________
Polyatomic Ion or Radical
NH4 is the formula for __________
ammonium has a charge of ________
HCO3 is the formula for ________
Bicarbonate has a charge of ______
C103 is the formula for______
confirm this formula
Chlorate has a charge of ______
OH is the formula for ________
Hydroxide has a charge of _________
NO3 is the formula for ________
Nitrate has a charge of ________
NO2 is the formula for _______
Nitrite has a charge of ________
CO3 is the formula for _______
Carbonate has a charge of _____
SO4 is the formula for _______
Sulfate has a charge of ______
SO3 is the formula for _________
Sulfite has a charge of _____
BO3 is the formula for ________
Borate has a charge of ____
B4O7 is the formula for _______
Tetraborate has a charge of _____
PO4 is the formula for _________
Phosphate has a charge of
CN is the formula for _______
Cyanide has a charge of _____
OC1 is the formula for __________
Hypochlorite has a charge of ______
To determine the total number of ________ present in a compound, take the ______ number of the compound (if present) and multiply it by the _________ number of the element (if present) and finally multiple that by the number _______ the parenthesis (if present)
The only time parenthesis are used in Chemistry is when there is a ____________
atomic number of Hydrogen is ____ and atomic weight is _____
the most abundant element in the universe.....
what percentage of all elements in the universe contains hydrogen?
hydrogen is the ONLY element on the periodic table that routinely contains NO ________
What elements are listed as OCCURENCE?
common name for Halogen
salt formers (group VII elements)
all Halogens have _____ valence electrons in the outer most shell
In their ionic state, Halogens have a __________ number
Types of Halogen
most abundant or common element in the earth's atmosphere
most abundant element on the surface of the earth. Present in the air that we breathe
water is a___________
Most abundant compound on the surface of the earth
presence of calcium and magnesium salts within water
hard water will cause blood to _______ in a dead human body
water hardness that can be removed by boiling
water hardness that can not be removed by boiling
compounds in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize
the splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water.
chemical reaction between salt and water which yields or produces an acid and base of unequal strength
another definition for hydrolysis
removal or loss of water from a substance/dead human body. especially the face and lips
dehydration is also called________________
the disassociation of substances in solution into ions
disassociation means _______
example of ionization would be like putting a teaspoon of granulated salt into _________
a positively charged atom or group of atoms
example of cation....
a negatively charged atom or group of atoms
example of anion
percentage of hydrogen ion in solution
7 on the pH scale is _______
Below 7 on the pH scale is _________
Above 7 on the pH scale is _______ or ________
to check a solution to being acidic or alkaline is by an indicator paper called ______________
The end color of any ACIDIC solution in chemistry would be.....
The end color of any ALKALINE or BASIC solution in chemistry would be.....
water is a __________--
Water will turn any color litmus paper _____________
litmus paper comes in what two colors?
the chemical reaction between acid and a base which always forms a salt and water
ammonia will _________ formaldehyde
ammonia to formaldehyde reacts to form ________ and ________
water (by product)
CH2O (2 is a subscript) is the chemical formula for_____________
compounds formed, other than water in the chemical reaction between acids and bases
have a pH of less than 7
3 types of acids
yields or produces hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution.
a solution which contains water
this acid is chemically correct
acids which donates a proton
Bronsted-Lowry acid is a ________ theory
substances that ACCEPT a pair of electrons
have a pH above 7
3 types of bases
substance which yields are produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
a substance that accepts or gains a proton
Bronsted-Lowry base is a ________ theory
a substance that DONATES a pair of electrons
Physical properties of Oxygen
1. Odorless gas
2. Colorless gas
3. Tasteless gas
oxygen is heavier than
O2 is the formula for _____
chemical properties of oxygen
1. combines with most elements to produce compounds called oxides
2. supports combustion
3. acts as oxidizing agent
compounds which contain two or more elements...one of which is oxygen
rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced...usually accompanied by a flame
oxygen does not__________
oxygen supports ___________
a slow oxidation that develops by itself into combustion
REDuction & OXidation is known as...
4 Properties of oxidation....
1. ADDITION of oxygen from a substance
2. LOSS of hydrogen from a substance
3. LOSS of electrons in an atom
4. INCREASE in oxidation number of a substance in a compound
Two ways to remember properties of oxidation
LEO stands for...
Loss Of Electrons
OIL stands for...
Oxidation Is Loss of electrons
4 Properties of Reduction
1. LOSS of oxygen from a substance
2. GAIN of hydrogen to a substance
3. GAIN of electrons during reaction
4. DECREASE in the charge or oxidation number of an atom
which property is most important in oxidation?
LOSS of electrons in an atom
which property is most important in reduction?
GAIN of electrons during reaction
REDOX will never occur _________________ of each other
In REDOX reaction, one substance is ______ and another is __________.
a comparison of oxidation numbers can be made of the elements on the _________ side of the equation to the same elements on the _____________ side. This comparison will determine which substance has been ______________ and which substance has been ____________.
oxidizing agent is ____________
reducing agent is _________
whatever is oxidized....
whatever is reduced....
two ways to remember properties of Reduction
GERs stands for
Gain of Electrons
RIG stands for
Reductiion Is Gain of electrons
Homogenous mixtures of two or more substances
true solutions (crystalloids)
solid solution that is a metallic substance composed of two or more metallic substances
component of a solution that is present in greatest quantity
solutions which contain relatively low concentrations of solute such as 1% / 1g
solutions which contain relatively high concentrations of solute, such as 37% / 37g
component of a solution that is dissolved
substance of a solution which does the dissolving
relative to embalming fluids, a synonym for the solvent of water would be called the.....
amount of solute present in a given amount of solvent at saturation describes _______
any solution which contains the maximum amount of solute which it is capable of dissolving
any solution which contains less than the maximum amount of solute which it is capable of dissolving.
examples of unsaturated
any solution which contains more solute than it is capable of dissolving
When formaldehyde gas is dissolved in water the resulting solution is called
concentrations of solutions are quantitatively expressed in what 2 methods?
1. Percentage method
2. Ratio method
this is an example of what method????
The percent of solution to % of solute.
By weight or volume - formaldehyde: 37% by weight, 40% by volume
this is an example of what method????
not sure what this means...confirm
parts per million...cubits of air
The number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters of solutions defines
The diffusion of fluids thru semi-permeable membranes or porous partitions describes
__________ does not need a semi-permeable membrane
Two solutions of equal concentrations are called
more or excessive solute
less or below - less solute
In addition to true solutions, other solution like systems are ___________ and ____________ which differ primarily in particle size.
Inasmuch as solutions are diffusible, they therefore lend themselves to _________ which is diffusion through membranes.
A __________ solution is one that contains a lower solute concentration that of the other solution. This type solution may cause cells to_______ which results in _______.
Edematous remains would require a more ____________ solution in order to __________________ from body tissues.
Consequently, a hypertonic solution is one that contains a higher solute concentration than the opposing solution. This, in turn will cause body cells to _________which is called __________________.
Dehydrated bodies should be injected with a ______ solution; whereas edematous bodies should be injected with a ____________ solution. Why? ???
You'd want it to plump up
______________are yet another type of solution like substance only designated by particle size.
examples of emulsions...
Egg white solution
Oil & Vinegar