Chemistry Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry Test 2 Deck (162):
1

abbreviation for an element

symbol

2

abbreviation for a compound

formula

3

abbreviation for a chemical change

chemical equation

4

a whole number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula

coefficient

5

a coefficient represents...

number of molecules of that element

6

a number written to the right and slightly below a symbol or formula

subscript

7

a Subscript represents

total number of atoms in the element

8

in a chemical equation, the substances which are on the left side of the equation are called...

reactants

9

in a chemical equation, the substances which are on the right side of the equation are called

product

10

formulas are usually expressed as the _________ portion written first; and a ___________ portion written last.

metallic
non-metallic

11

__________ usually have positive oxidation numbers; whereas ___________ usually have negative oxidation numbers.

metals
non-metals

12

in the expression of formulas, the products are obtained from the ___________; and essence "change partners"- that is _________ to _______ and __________ to _______.

reactants
plus to minus
minus to plus

13

sometimes a group of atoms behaves as if it were a single atom. this group has its own charge and name and is called a ______________

Polyatomic Ion or Radical

14

NH4 is the formula for __________

ammonium

15

ammonium has a charge of ________

+1

16

HCO3 is the formula for ________

Bicarbonate

17

Bicarbonate has a charge of ______

-1

18

C103 is the formula for______
confirm this formula

chlorate

19

Chlorate has a charge of ______

-1

20

OH is the formula for ________

Hydroxide

21

Hydroxide has a charge of _________

-1

22

NO3 is the formula for ________

Nitrate

23

Nitrate has a charge of ________

-1

24

NO2 is the formula for _______

Nitrite

25

Nitrite has a charge of ________

-1

26

CO3 is the formula for _______

Carbonate

27

Carbonate has a charge of _____

-2

28

SO4 is the formula for _______

Sulfate

29

Sulfate has a charge of ______

-2

30

SO3 is the formula for _________

Sulfite

31

Sulfite has a charge of _____

-2

32

BO3 is the formula for ________

Borate

33

Borate has a charge of ____

-3

34

B4O7 is the formula for _______

Tetraborate

35

Tetraborate has a charge of _____

-2

36

PO4 is the formula for _________

Phosphate

37

Phosphate has a charge of

-3

38

CN is the formula for _______

Cyanide

39

Cyanide has a charge of _____

-1

40

OC1 is the formula for __________

Hypochlorite

41

Hypochlorite has a charge of ______

-1

42

To determine the total number of ________ present in a compound, take the ______ number of the compound (if present) and multiply it by the _________ number of the element (if present) and finally multiple that by the number _______ the parenthesis (if present)

Atoms
Coefficient
Subscript
Outside

43

The only time parenthesis are used in Chemistry is when there is a ____________

polyatomic ion

44

atomic number of Hydrogen is ____ and atomic weight is _____

1
1

45

the most abundant element in the universe.....

hydrogen

46

what percentage of all elements in the universe contains hydrogen?

93%

47

hydrogen is the ONLY element on the periodic table that routinely contains NO ________

NEUTRONS

48

What elements are listed as OCCURENCE?

Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Halogen
Oxygen

49

common name for Halogen

salt formers (group VII elements)

50

all Halogens have _____ valence electrons in the outer most shell

7

51

In their ionic state, Halogens have a __________ number

negative

52

Types of Halogen

1. Chlorine
2. Fluorine
3. Bromine
4. Iodine

53

most abundant or common element in the earth's atmosphere

nitrogen

54

most abundant element on the surface of the earth. Present in the air that we breathe

oxygen

55

water is a___________

compound

56

Most abundant compound on the surface of the earth

H2O (water)

57

presence of calcium and magnesium salts within water

hardness

58

hard water will cause blood to _______ in a dead human body

clot

59

water hardness that can be removed by boiling

temporary hardness

60

water hardness that can not be removed by boiling

permanent hardness

61

compounds in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize

hydrates

62

the splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water.

hydrolysis

63

chemical reaction between salt and water which yields or produces an acid and base of unequal strength

another definition for hydrolysis

64

removal or loss of water from a substance/dead human body. especially the face and lips

dehydration

65

dehydration is also called________________

desiccation

66

the disassociation of substances in solution into ions

ionization

67

disassociation means _______

breaking apart

68

example of ionization would be like putting a teaspoon of granulated salt into _________

water

69

a positively charged atom or group of atoms

cation

70

example of cation....

sodium

71

a negatively charged atom or group of atoms

anion

72

example of anion

chlorine

73

percentage of hydrogen ion in solution

pH

74

7 on the pH scale is _______

neutral

75

Below 7 on the pH scale is _________

acidic

76

Above 7 on the pH scale is _______ or ________

alkaline
basic

77

to check a solution to being acidic or alkaline is by an indicator paper called ______________

litmus paper

78

The end color of any ACIDIC solution in chemistry would be.....

red

79

The end color of any ALKALINE or BASIC solution in chemistry would be.....

blue

80

water is a __________--

compound

81

Water will turn any color litmus paper _____________

white

82

litmus paper comes in what two colors?

blue
red

83

the chemical reaction between acid and a base which always forms a salt and water

neutralization

84

ammonia will _________ formaldehyde

neutralizee

85

ammonia to formaldehyde reacts to form ________ and ________

urotropin (salt)
water (by product)

86

CH2O (2 is a subscript) is the chemical formula for_____________

formaldehyde

87

compounds formed, other than water in the chemical reaction between acids and bases

salts

88

have a pH of less than 7

acids

89

3 types of acids

1. Arrhenius
2. Bronsted-Lowry
3. Lewis

90

yields or produces hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution.

Arrhenius acids

91

a solution which contains water

aqueous solution

92

this acid is chemically correct

arrhenius acid

93

acids which donates a proton

Bronsted-Lowry acid

94

Bronsted-Lowry acid is a ________ theory

false

95

substances that ACCEPT a pair of electrons

lewis acid

96

have a pH above 7

bases

97

3 types of bases

1. Arrhenius
2. Bronsted-Lowry
3. Lewis

98

substance which yields are produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

arrhenius base

99

a substance that accepts or gains a proton

Bronsted-Lowry base

100

Bronsted-Lowry base is a ________ theory

false

101

a substance that DONATES a pair of electrons

Lewis base

102

Physical properties of Oxygen

1. Odorless gas
2. Colorless gas
3. Tasteless gas

103

oxygen is heavier than

air

104

O2 is the formula for _____

oxygen

105

chemical properties of oxygen

1. combines with most elements to produce compounds called oxides
2. supports combustion
3. acts as oxidizing agent

106

compounds which contain two or more elements...one of which is oxygen

oxides

107

rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced...usually accompanied by a flame

combustion

108

oxygen does not__________

burn

109

oxygen supports ___________

combustion

110

a slow oxidation that develops by itself into combustion

spontaneous combustion

111

REDuction & OXidation is known as...

REDOX

112

4 Properties of oxidation....

1. ADDITION of oxygen from a substance
2. LOSS of hydrogen from a substance
3. LOSS of electrons in an atom
4. INCREASE in oxidation number of a substance in a compound

113

Two ways to remember properties of oxidation

LEO
OIL

114

LEO stands for...

Loss Of Electrons

115

OIL stands for...

Oxidation Is Loss of electrons

116

4 Properties of Reduction

1. LOSS of oxygen from a substance
2. GAIN of hydrogen to a substance
3. GAIN of electrons during reaction
4. DECREASE in the charge or oxidation number of an atom

117

which property is most important in oxidation?

LOSS of electrons in an atom

118

which property is most important in reduction?

GAIN of electrons during reaction

119

REDOX will never occur _________________ of each other

independently

120

In REDOX reaction, one substance is ______ and another is __________.

oxidized
reduced

121

a comparison of oxidation numbers can be made of the elements on the _________ side of the equation to the same elements on the _____________ side. This comparison will determine which substance has been ______________ and which substance has been ____________.

reactant
product
oxidized
reduced

122

oxidizing agent is ____________

reduced

123

reducing agent is _________

oxidized

124

whatever is oxidized....

loses

125

whatever is reduced....

gains

126

two ways to remember properties of Reduction

GERs
RIG

127

GERs stands for

Gain of Electrons

128

RIG stands for

Reductiion Is Gain of electrons

129

True solutions

crystalloids

130

Homogenous mixtures of two or more substances

true solutions (crystalloids)

131

solid solution that is a metallic substance composed of two or more metallic substances

alloy

132

component of a solution that is present in greatest quantity

solvent

133

solutions which contain relatively low concentrations of solute such as 1% / 1g

dilute solutions

134

solutions which contain relatively high concentrations of solute, such as 37% / 37g

concentrated solutions

135

component of a solution that is dissolved

solute

136

substance of a solution which does the dissolving

solvent

137

relative to embalming fluids, a synonym for the solvent of water would be called the.....

vehicle

138

amount of solute present in a given amount of solvent at saturation describes _______

saturation point

139

any solution which contains the maximum amount of solute which it is capable of dissolving

saturated

140

any solution which contains less than the maximum amount of solute which it is capable of dissolving.

unsaturated

141

examples of unsaturated

dilute
concentrated

142

any solution which contains more solute than it is capable of dissolving

supersaturated

143

When formaldehyde gas is dissolved in water the resulting solution is called

formalin

144

concentrations of solutions are quantitatively expressed in what 2 methods?

1. Percentage method
2. Ratio method

145

this is an example of what method????

The percent of solution to % of solute.
By weight or volume - formaldehyde: 37% by weight, 40% by volume

percentage method

146

this is an example of what method????

ratio method

147

not sure what this means...confirm

parts per million...cubits of air

148

The number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters of solutions defines

index

149

The diffusion of fluids thru semi-permeable membranes or porous partitions describes

osmosis

150

__________ does not need a semi-permeable membrane

diffusion

151

Two solutions of equal concentrations are called

isotonic

152

more or excessive solute

hypertonic solutions

153

less or below - less solute

hypotonic solutions

154

In addition to true solutions, other solution like systems are ___________ and ____________ which differ primarily in particle size.

emulsions
suspensions

155

Inasmuch as solutions are diffusible, they therefore lend themselves to _________ which is diffusion through membranes.

osmosis

156

A __________ solution is one that contains a lower solute concentration that of the other solution. This type solution may cause cells to_______ which results in _______.

hypotontic
burst
hemolysis

157

Edematous remains would require a more ____________ solution in order to __________________ from body tissues.

hypertonic (plasmoptysis)
withdraw moisture

158

Consequently, a hypertonic solution is one that contains a higher solute concentration than the opposing solution. This, in turn will cause body cells to _________which is called __________________.

shrink
crenation (plasmolysis)

159

Dehydrated bodies should be injected with a ______ solution; whereas edematous bodies should be injected with a ____________ solution. Why? ???

hypotonic
hypertonic
You'd want it to plump up

160

______________are yet another type of solution like substance only designated by particle size.

emulsions

161

examples of emulsions...

Blood plasma
Egg white solution
Mayonnaise
Oil & Vinegar

162

are mixtures such as milk of magnesia

suspensions