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Flashcards in pathology... Deck (96):
1

Bacterial typical reproduction is by?

binary fission (simple transverse division) an asexual means

2

What are the conditions affecting bacterial growth?

1. Food requirements2. Oxygen requirements3. Moisture (water) requirements4. pH5. Temperature requirements6. Effect of light on bacterial growth7. Osmotic pressure

3

Effect of light on bacterial growth

UV light is bactericidal

4

Factors influencing virulence

1. toxin production2. enzymes3. capsules4. endospores

5

Portals of entry & exit of pathogens

1. Skin & mucous membranes- staph.2. Respiratory tract- TB, pneumonia3. Digestive tract- cholera, dysentery4. Genito-urinary tract (GUT)- STD’s5. Placenta- rubella (German measles)

6

Vehicles of exit of pathogens

1. Feces- dysentery, cholera2. Urine- U.T. infections, STD’s; purulent (cloudy) appearance3. Semen4. Vaginal secretions- yeast infections5. Sputum 6. Saliva- cytomegalovirus (CID)7. Blood- hepatitis A & B8. Pus & lesion exudates- skin, abscesses, decubitus ulcers9. Tears

7

Factors influencing the occurrence of an infection

1. Portal of entry of the pathogens & elective localization2. Number of organisms- greater number that attack, the more likely you are to catch it3. Virulence of the organisms4. Resistance of the host

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An infection in which the causative agent comes from outside the body

Exogenous

9

An infection which is caused by microorganisms which are normally present within the body

Endogenous

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an infection of sudden onset and short duration (meningococcemia)

Acute

11

an infection of slow onset and long duration (Alzheimer's)

Chronic

12

An infection capable of being transmitted, either directly or indirectly, from host to host. Contagious means highly communicable

Communicable

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An infection that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a community Ex: cold flu

Endemic

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An infection which attacks a large number of people in a community in a short period of time

Epidemic

15

Worldwide epidemic; an infection which becomes an epidemic in a number of countries at the same time ex: flu in 1919 killed 20 million

Pandemic

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An infection which occurs only occasionally (now and then) in a community (Legionnaire's disease; 4 corners region=Hantavirus)

Sporadic

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the initial (first) infection of a mixed infection

Primary

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an infection due to two or more organisms ex: 2 or more infections occurring at the same time

Mixed

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the second and generally more complicating infection in a mixed infection

Secondary

20

an infection in which the pathogenic organisms remain confined to a particular area (abscessed tooth)

Local

21

an infection confined to a particular area, but from which the bacteria spread to other parts of the body

Focal

22

Infection throughout, spread generally over the body by the bloodstream or lymphatic system (septicemia/sepsis)

General

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a condition in which bacteria are in the bloodstream but are not multiplying there

Bacteremia

24

Invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic organisms with their subsequent multiplication therein. Common name is "blood poisoning" (sepsis)

Septicemia

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the presence of toxins (poisonous substances) in the blood

Toxemia

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an infection which occurs during the course of a chronic disease and causes death

Terminal

27

The presence of infectious material, without a reaction necessarily being produced. This term can also refer to inanimate objects (fomite)

Contamination

28

The invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites; those able to be seen with the unaided eye (maggots)

Infestation

29

the ability of a microorganism to produce disease. Attenuation implies a weakening or reduction in the virulence of a microorganism

Virulence

30

Diseases caused by infectious agent that can be transmitted between (or are shared by) animals and humans (malaria; encephalitis)

Zoonotic

31

A hospital-acquired infection; one obtained while in the hospital (staph)

Nosocomial

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Literally, pus in the blood; a form of septicemia cause by cryogenic (pus-forming) bacteria

Pyemia

33

A sudden, severe and overwhelming infection, such as spinal meningitis

Fulminating

34

infection throughout the body, having been spread by the bloodstream or lymphatic system

Generalized

35

A seemingly inactive infection; it is apparently held in check by the body's defense but may spread when the body resistance is reduced (cold sores, syphilis)

Latent

36

an infection in which the clinical symptoms are not recognized or immediately detectable (TB)

Inapparent

37

an infection in which all the symptoms are easily recognized (rubella)

Typical mumps

38

An infection in which all symptoms are not easily recognizable, meaning that it could be confused with another infection

Atypical

39

any microorganism that causes disease in man. A non-pathogen does not cause disease in man

Pathogens

40

Normal FloraOpportunistsStrict (obligate) pathogens

Types of Pathogens

41

Microorganisms that live and grow in and on the human body. Most are non-pathogens

Normal Flora/ Indigenous flora

42

Microorganisms that produce infection only under especially favorable conditions, that is, they await the right opportunity to cause infection. Pathogens contained in a person's normal flora are usually opportunists since they alone cannot penetrate unbroken skin

Opportunists

43

microorganisms that will cause an infection in man every time that a person is exposed to them. they are never a part of one's normal flora (streptococcus pyogenes)

Strict (obligate) pathogens

44

a method of asexual reproduction involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell followed by the development of each half into a new individual

Binary Fission

45

has everything it needs to reproduce on its own

asexual reproduction

46

a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism (nutrient broth, blood agar)

Bacterial colony

47

self nourishing bacteria; obtain there food from an organic matter, does not contain carbon

Autotrophic bacteria

48

other than self nourishing; organisms that must obtain their nourishment from complex organic matter; does contain carbon

Heterotrophic bacteria

49

an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter

Strict (obligate) saprophytes

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an organism that is completely dependent on its living host for survival

Strict (obligate) parasite

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a microbe that can only live in the presence of free oxygen (Humans)

Strict (obligate) aerobe

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a microbe that can only survive in the absence of free oxygen (Clostridium/ gang-green)

Strict (obligate) anaerobe

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a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen (a level less that is required for humans)

Microaerophilic

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percentage of Hydrogen ion in solution; slightly alkaline for most pathogens

pH

55

organisms that can live in the presence or absense or oxygen

Facultative bacteria

56

lowest temperature at which any organism could live

Minimum temperature

57

highest temperature at which any organism could live

Maximum temperature

58

temperature at which any organism grows best at

Optimum temperature

59

organisms that grow best at cold temperatures below 20 degrees C

Psychrophiles (cryophiles)

60

most pathogens organisms that prefer moderate temperature and develop best at temperatures between 20 and 40 degrees C

Mesophiles

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organisms that thrive best at high temperatures, above 40 degrees C

Thermophiles

62

pressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane

Osmotic pressure

63

this solution is important to study bacterial cells & red blood cells

Isotonic

64

excess solute (water leaves the cells cause shrinkage)

Hypertonic

65

shrinkage of bacterial cells when placed in a hypertonic solution

Plasmolysis

66

shrinkage of red blood cells when placed in a hypertonic solution

Crenation

67

less solute than normal (water enters the cells causing them to burst)

Hypotonic

68

bursting of bacterial cells when placed in a hypotonic solution

Plasmoptysis

69

bursting of red blood cells when placed in a hypotonic solution

Hemolysis

70

living together; organisms live in close nutritional relationships; required by one or both members

Symbiosis

71

of benefit to all, a relationship which organisms of two different species live in close association to the mutual benefit of each.

Mutualism

72

of benefit to one, with no effect on the other, (Ex: normal flora) the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains some benefit such as protection or nourishment and the other is not harmed or benefited.

Commensalism

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of benefit to one, harmful to the other, an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits

Parasitism

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a relationship between 2 or more microorganisms which produces an effect, be it good or bad, not possible by each one alone

Synergism

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a relationship between 2 or more microorganisms in which the presence of one inhibits the growth of the other; mutual opposition or contrary action

Antagonism

76

the entry, establishment and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host

Infection

77

the ability of an organism to cause infection in man; the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease

Pathogenicity

78

a weakening in the virulence of an organism; dilution or weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity

Attenuation

79

resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs

Drug-fast

80

produced all the time & continuously released to the outside; Example: tetanus, cholera

Exotoxins

81

only released when cell producing it is destroyed; Example: spinal meningitis

Endotoxins

82

organic catalysts; substances that speed up or slow down a chemical reaction without being destroyed or used up in the process

Enzymes

83

(spreading factor)- breaks down hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronidase

84

Clots plasma; cause a clot around the bacteria

Coagulase

85

(streptokinase)- dissolves blood clots, especially if the clot caused MI

Fibrinolysin

86

Slime-layer; the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria helps to protect cells from phagocytosis, thus enhancing virulence of microorganisms

Capsules

87

best means of protection, not means of reproduction, (clostridium)

Endospores

88

1. Animals or persons currently ill of the infection (best source of infection transmission)2. Chronic animal or human carriers 3. Environment

Sources of infection

89

animal or human that posses a particular an organism and transmits that organism to others after their recovery;

Active carriers

90

animal or human that posses a particular an organism and transfers it to others, even though they have never suffered from the infection it causes. Ex: Typhoid Mary (typhoid fever)

Passive carriers

91

during recovery

Convalescent carrier

92

a. Physical contact-STD’Sb. Droplet infection (aerosol)c. Congenital- rubella (any disease present at birth)

Direct transmission

93

a. Foodb. Milkc. Fomites- lifeless inanmite objectsd. Watere. Soilf. Vectors

Indirect transmission

94

arthropods, insects, flies, tree roaches, that are not suffering from the infection in which they are carrying

Vectors

95

mosquitoes (blood suckers), malaria (monkeys)

Biological vectors

96

they carry the infection on their outside shell, wings feet, ect.

Mechanical vectors