Flashcards in .micro Deck (407):
scientific study of MO’s and their effect on other living organisms (study of small life).
MO stands for
Classification or naming of all living things
Ability to exist in either one cell or multi cell form
Study of external structure and form of organism without regard to its function *generally indicated by the genus name of MO
white blood cell eating
likelihood disease causes infection to human of MO
DIVISIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY: 1. BACTERIOLOGY – Study of bacteria 2. RICKETTSIOLOGY – Study of Rickettsia (infection usually from bugs or insects) 3. VIROLOGY – Study of viruses (smallest organisms known to man, that cannot be viewed by compound microscope). 4. PROTOZOOLOGY – Study of protozoa (smallest form of animal life – i.e. ameba) 5. MYCOLOGY – Study of fungi or fungus (study of yeasts and mold) *fungi have the ability to exist in one cell or multi-cell form, called DIMORPHISM
Study of bacteria 1. Single cell of M.O.’s in kingdom of monora. 2. Reproduced by binary fission
Study of Rickettsia (infection usually from bugs or insects)
RICKETTSIOLOGY separate family, febrile infections (Named for person discovering it. Sr. Anthony Ricketts). Could run a fever of 107 degrees – Rocky Mountain Spotted fever.
Study of viruses (smallest organisms known to man, that cannot be viewed by compound microscope).
Study of protozoa (smallest form of animal life)
Study of fungi (plural)or fungus (singular) (study of yeasts and mold)
fungi have the ability to exist in one cell or multi-cell form, called
Classification of Living Things
Class – Homo sapiens Highest: Kingdom Keep Phylum Pulling Class Cows Order Out Family From Genus Most important Green Lowest: Species Most important Swamps
Genus name always capitalized
Genus name* It indicates something about the morphology - the external structure or form.* pay honor to an individual
the lowest level classification of any living thing.
is always in small letters. NEVER CAPITALIZED
species *It usually indicates an infection caused by that microorganism*if not usually indicates a lab characteristic
If the________ name does not tell us an _______ it caused by that microorganism , it will usually tell us a _____________
grows in cluster ( yellow pus)
grows in chains
What percentage of microorganisms are non-pathegentic
What percentage can cause infection to man
bacteria lacks a true nucleous
famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM).
febrile infections, mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever. The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (Sir Anthony Ricketts).
Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. Parrot fever, NGU – non gonococcal urethritis
Chlamydia - parrot fever, NGU
smallest microorganism known to man. Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis
smallest form of animal life malaria, amebic dysentery
a small protein like infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids. Syndrome – set of signs associated with disease.
Prion - creutzfeldt - Jakob (referred to as CJ)
Of the eight (8) different families or groups of microorganisms that are a major health importance, which cause the greatest majority of infection in man
8 different families or groups of microorganisms
1.Bacteria - staph, strept. Infection. Prokaryotic – bacteria lacks a true nucleous.2. Mycoplasmas - famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM). 3. Rickettsia - febrile infections mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever. The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (Sr. Anthony Ricketts).4. Chlamydia - parrot fever, NGU. Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. NGU – non gonococcal urethritis 5. Viruses - smallest microorganism known to man. Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis, smallpox.6. Protozoa - smallest form of animal life - malaria, amebic dysentery.7. Fungi - yeast and molds; athlete’s foot, thrush, PCP.Ability to exist in more than one form – unicellular or multicellular8. Prion - creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) a small protein like infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids.
What does non pathogenic mean?
do not cause infection in humans
study of external structure and form of any organism without regard to its function.
largest unit of measurement
smallest unit of measurement
medium unit of measurement
How many main shapes of bacteria are there?
a single spherical (round) shaped bacteria.
Spherical (round) coccus Cocci-two or more spherical (round) shaped bacteria.
a single rod (capsule) shaped bacteria.
Rod (capsule) bacillus Bacilli - two or more rod (capsule) shaped bacteria
a single spiral shaped bacteria.
Spiral - spirillum Spirilla two or more spiral bacteria
comma shaped bacteria
Vibrio Example of disease: Cholera
S curved or autopsy needle shaped. Also, snake shaped bacteria
corkscrew shaped bacteria
Spirochete Example: Syphilis
grow in pairs - a variation of round shaped bacteria
grows in clusters of round shaped bacteria - like grapes
grow together in chains
the outermost layer which gives shape and integrity (strength) to bacteria; its makeup used to differ among microorganisms; e.g. high lipid (fat) for TB; protein in Gram stain (blue if yes, red if no). This test shows if there is protein in the bacteria of TB
a thinner, inner layer; controls entry and exit into the bacteria. Regulate entry / exit of food
any living substance present in the cell
always located on the outside of certain bacteria it protects cells from phagocytosis. This Jelly like material is located around the outside of certain bacteria.. It protects it against a natural process of the body, phagocytosis, by which the body attempts to destroy anything foreign
capsule (slime layer)
when the body attempts to destroy anything foreign, this is known as
surrounds, ingests and destroys anything foreign. A natural process which your body attempts to accomplish. An attempt to try to protect your body against anything foreign. Thus any organism that invades your body and has a slime capsule is more likely to cause infection because of the slime structure. It will take the bodies white blood cells longer to defend against the organism.
the likelihood an organism will cause infection in man. Relative power to produce a disease.
jelly-like material located on outside of certain bacteria; protects cells from natural process of body called phagocytosis, thus enhancing virulence of the microorganisms
best means of protection any microorganism can possess; NOT a means of reproduction; only one per cell, when formed; Bacillus and Clostridium are the only two bacteria that could form spores.
Endospore - (Inside)
only two genera that could form spores
Bacillus and Clostridium
aerobic - grows in the presence of oxygen
anaerobic - grows without the presence of oxygen.
NOTE: only genus to be able to form spores
any bacteria that could never form endospores, or any bacteria that can produce endospores, but currently is not producing them. Never form endospores, a vegetative bacteria that does not have a genus name
any bacteria currently producing endospores. This occurs only under adverse living conditions of the bacteria. Never more than one spore at a time.
when a free endospore forms new vegetative cells when good living conditions return
used for movement of bacteria; long, whip like structures attached to the outside of the cell. There are many variations as to how many and where they are located. (e.g. monotrichous and peritrichous) Move to another food source or away from the enemy.
One (long single) whip like structure
Several whip like structures
Smallest form of animal life
shorter than Flagella and used to aid in attachment of an organism to the site of infection; e.g. Gonorrhea.
Pili “Little Hairs”
set of signs associated with disease.
The presence of a _______ will enhance the likelihood the bacteria will cause infection.
name three heterotrophic bacteria
strict (obligate) saprophytes
strict (obligate) parasites
all bacteria - pathogens are so classified and must have a source of carbon. Bacteria that obtain their food from INORGANIC matter. They manufacture their own carbon
all organisms that cause infection in man are classified as heterotrophic and obtain their food from ORGANIC matter - food that contains carbon. Humans contain carbon - glucose
a VISIBLE growth of bacteria growing on a culture medium
the material you attempt to grow bacteria
to grow in a laboratory setting bacteria in a medium of nutrient, broth, or blood agar.
any organism that must have presence of oxygen to live.
strict (obligate) aerobes
organisms that must have absence of oxygen to live
strict (obligate) anaerobes
organisms that live in the presence of oxygen, but at a level less than that required of humans
organisms that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen
excess of water
loss of water
percentage of HYDROGEN (H) ion in solution; slightly alkaline for most pathogens
a pH above 7 is
a pH below 7 is
the smallest microorganism known to man that cannot be seen with the ordinary compound light microscope
smallest FREE LIVING organism known to man
NOTE: In regards to the shape of bacteria... if there are two or more the answer ends with a vowel
smallest form of animal life
True or False?Viruses CANNOT live alone?
True or False?Chlamydia is SMALLER than bacteria, but LARGER than viruses
Measles, mumps, flu, and hepatitis are examples of what?
Malaria and amebic dysentery are examples of what?
the lowest temperature at which an organism can live
the highest temperature at which an organism can live.
the temperature at which organism grows best.
organisms that grow best at cold temperature. Usually below 20 degrees Celsius or less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit
Psychrophiles (cryophiles) (CHRO- CRY- COLD)
most pathogens - bacteria that prefer medium temperature. Usually between 20 - 40 degrees C. The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of 98.6 F or 37 C. When the body temperature goes up (fever) it does so to kill the organism.
Mesophiles (MESO MEDIUM)
helps to kill most pathogens that like medium temperature.
The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of
98.6 F or 37 C.
organisms that grow best at warm temperatures. Usually above 40 degrees C
thermophiles(THINK THERMAL UNDERWEAR TO WARM UP OR A THERMOS OF HOT COFFEE)
ultra violet light is bactericidal which means what?
will kill bacteria but will not kill all organisms because over a period of time organisms exposed to excessive amounts of ultra violet light will genetically mutate and develop resistance.
Ultraviolet light which ___________ be seen will ______ bacteria
Deals primarily with solutions. deals with something you cannot see without a microscope.
Osmotic Pressure (Osmosis- diffusion through membranes)
the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in greater quantity
the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in lesser quantity
name the different osmotic pressure
Isotonic solutionsHypertonic solutions Hypotonic solutions
is the type of Osmotic Pressure necessary to properly study bacterial cells and red blood cells to ensure no change in size, shape, and volumethe number of particles entering the cell roughly equals the number of particles leaving. The shape and integrity of the cell is maintained
excess solute. If a bacteria is placed in this type of solution it changes the shape of the cell. There will be more particles leaving than entering. The end result – the cell will atrophy
to wrinkle or shrink
the shrinkage of a bacterial cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution
the shrinkage of a red blood cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution
beneath or below - less solute than normal. If a bacteria cell is placed in this solution, more particles will enter the cell than leave
The bursting of a bacterial cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution
plasmoptysis(MOP) mop below the counter surface
The bursting of a red blood cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution
living organisms living together
relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to all involved
relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to one w/ no effect to the other e.g. normal flora (living in on the human body)
relationship between two or more organisms which is of benefit to one, harmful to the other.
a relationship between two or more organisms which produces an effect, be it good or bad, not possible by each one alone. Both parties have to do their part.
a relationship between two or more organisms in which the presence of one inhibits or prevents the growth of the other; mutual opposition or contrary action.
entry establishment & multiplication of pathogens within a host. Any disease caused by a microorganism
the mere presence of infectious material, with no reaction produced.
the ability of an organism to cause infection in man.
True or FalseA great number of pathogenicites are not infectious
relative to produce disease, the likelihood that the pathogenic organism will cause infection in man.
a dilution or weakening in the virulence of an organism. This will reduce or destroy its pathogenicity.
micro-organisms naturally living in and on a host. Present on both dead and living bodies - the reason for disinfecting during embalming.
Indigenous flora - (normal flora)
resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs. Bacterial having developed a resistance to a drug.
An infection in which the causative agent (organism) comes from outside the body. Could come from on the body or from the air
An infection which is caused by microorganisms which are normally present within the body.
An infection of sudden onset and short duration, less than one year. Examples: Meningococcemia - Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -
A fatal form of blood poisoning
early form of Alzheimer
Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -
An infection of slow onset and long duration. Greater than a year. Example: Alzheimer
An infection capable of being transmitted, either directly or indirectly, from host to host. Host could be a person or animal
means highly communicable. The likelihood that the transmission to others will occur is greater
are antagonism to another organism.
An infection that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a community Examples: cold and flu
an infection which attacks a large number of people in a community in a short period of time
Worldwide epidemic; an infection which becomes an epidemic in a number of countries at the same timeExample: Flu of 1919 20 million died
An infection which occurs only occasionally (now and then) in a community.
The initial (first) infection of a mixed infection. The first of two infections
An infection due to (caused by) two or more organisms. When a person or animal is suffering from two or more infections at the same time.
The second and generally more complicating infection in a mixed infection. * is usually more lethal.
An infection in which the pathogenic organisms remain confined to a particular area. Examples: Abscessed tooth
An infection confined to a particular area, but from which the bacteria spread to other parts of the body. An infection spreads
Infection throughout, spread generally over the body by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood
A condition in which bacteria are in the bloodstream, but are not multiplying there. Presence of bacteria in the blood
Invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic organisms, with their subsequent multiplication therein. Common name is “blood poisoning.”
the presence of an organism in the blood.
The presence of toxins (poisonous substances) in the blood.
An infection, which occurs during the course of a chronic disease and cause death.
The presence of infectious material, without a reaction necessarily being produced. This term can also refer to inanimate objects
inanimate objects. Seen only with a microscope
The invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites, i.e., those able to be seen with the unaided eye. Maggots
unaided eye to see the infestation
The ability (or likelihood) of a microorganism to produce disease.
implies a weakening or reduction in the virulence of a microorganism.
An infection primarily of animals that may be secondarily transmitted to man
- inflammation of the brain
caused by mosquitoes
Encephalitis and Malaria
mosquitoes biting migratory birds
mosquitoes biting monkeys
A hospital-acquired infection; one obtained while in the hospital. Staph. (Staff)
Literally, pus in the blood; a form of septicemia caused by pyogenic (pus-forming) bacteria. Puss in the blood. Staph. Strept
An infection which causes a fever (elevated temperature).
A sudden, severe, and overwhelming infection, such as spinal meningitis.
Infection throughout the body, having been spread by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood
A seemingly inactive infection; it is apparently held in check by the body’s defense, but may spread when the body resistance is reduced.Cold sores, Syphilis. They go away but are not dead. In the case of syphilis the disease has gone to the second stage.
An infection in which the clinical symptoms are not recognized or immediately detectable. TB
An infection in which all the symptoms are easily recognized. Rubella (German measles), Mumps
An infection in which all the symptoms are not easily recognizable, meaning that it could be confused with another infection. Not typical - TB. Complaint of one problem Intestinal pain and find out it is TB of the intestines
Any microorganism that causes disease in man
Any microorganism that does not cause disease in man.
types of pathogens
normal floraopportunistsstrict (obligate) pathogens
Microorganisms that live and grow in and on the human body. Most are non-pathogens. Indigenous
Microorganisms that produce infection only under especially favorable conditions, that is, they await the right opportunity to cause infection. Pathogens contained in a person’s normal flora are usually these, since they alone cannot penetrate unbroken skin.
Microorganisms that will cause an infection in man every time that a person is exposed to them. They are never a part of one’s normal flora. A must behavior Example: Strept throat
strict (obligate) pathogens
factors influencing virulence
Poison substance produced all the time and continuously released to the outside of certain bacteria; e.g. Tetanus, Cholera
Poison substance only released when the cell producing the bacteria is destroyed; e.g.: Spinal Meningitis.The ability of the bacteria to release a poison when the white blood cells of the body kills the bacteria
substances, which speed up the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up or destroyed in the process
an enzyme that helps spread bacteria. Increase the bacteria’s ability to spread to other parts of the body
Hyaluronidase (Spreading factor)
an enzyme that clots human plasma.
the liquid portion of non-clotted human blood.
an enzymes that dissolves blood clots. Especially if the clot has caused MI (heart attack). Persons having a heart attack or stroke caused by a blood clot would receive this enzyme to prevent other blood clots.
jelly like material located on the outside of certain bacteria.
capsules (slime layer)
The presence of the slime layer will:
Enhances the bacteria’s virulence. andProtects the organism from phagocytosis
the best protection an organism can possess is the ability to produce spores.
A person or animal that possess an organism after recovery from the infection it causes. The greatest risk of spreading an infection is immediately after recovery
active carrier of infection
A person or animal that has a particular organism, even though they have never suffered from the infection it causes, and passes it along to anotherExample: Typhoid Mary.
passive carrier infection
sources of infection
A person or animal currently ill of the infection.orChronic animal or human carriers
an animal or person that possesses an organism and transmits to someone else during recovery from the infection it causes
convalescent carrier of infection
modes of transmission of infections
direct transmissionindirect transmission
types of direct transmission of infections
physical contact (sexually transmitted disease)droplet infection (aerosol- sneezing)congenital- rubella (German measles) contacted during pregnancy from mother to child
types of indirect transmission of infections
a. Food poisoning (could taste fine at time of eating) b. Milk (bovine strain of TB) c. Fomites - lifeless inanimate objects - doorknobs, money, trocars, toilet seats, etc. d. Water (water signs – approved: Dept. of Health) e. Soil - tetanus or lock jaw. f. Vectors - an animal usually an insect that is serving as an indirect mode of transmission.
portals of entry and exit of pathogens
1. Skin and mucous membranes - staph. These organisms are living on your skin and are opportunistic and invades the body through a cut. The skin is the largest organ of the body (liver the largest organ in the body) 2. Respiratory tract - TB, pneumonia (infection of lung tissue itself) 3. Digestive tract - cholera, loss of 10quarts of water per day), dysentery 4. Genito - urinary tract (gut) - STD’s (sexually transmitted disease’s) 5. Placenta - rubella (German measles) transmitted from mother via the placenta into developing infant. Rubella always means German measles. (we would prefer a mother to be sick with 10 day measles so as not to be sick with this)
vehicles of exit pathogens
fecesurinesemenvaginal secretionssputumsalivabloodpus and lesion exudatestears
Waste product from the digestive tract - dysentery, cholera extremely watery stool
a substance made of a combination of saliva and mucus brought up from the respiratory tract.
produced by three sets of salivary glands. Vehicle of exit of disease spread to humanscytomegalovirus (CID) rabies
a vehicle for exit of disease spread to humans. Example: hepatitis A & B
A vehicle of exit of disease to humans; consists of both dead and living pus and blood. Examples: abscesses, decubitus ulcers – bed sores
Pus and lesion exudates
contain enzymes that kill bacteria
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF AN INFECTION:
1. Portal of entry of the pathogens and elective localization – when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called “elective localization.”2. Number of organisms - the more in number of an organism, the more likely you will be infected.3. Virulence of the organism - the likelihood an organism will cause infection in humans.(measuring how likely it is to cause infection.) Example: 1918 Flu – they died.4. Resistance of the host - having a good immune system. Good resistance to the organism. (Deals with immune ty of the host). Opportunistic or secondary infection. Health or illness = N (V) R N - number of organisms V - virulence of the organism R - resistance N x V divided by - R
when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called
inhibits microorganisms from entering the body.
Mechanical Defenses (Anatomical)
skin mucous membranes - soft moist tissue side the nose, ear, mouth, and eyes. Bony encasements - skull, ribcage.
- the bodies total response to an injury.
an agent that causes the body temperature to risethe substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. may come from within or from outside the body.
(white blood cells) scavengers - large cell ingestors like packman.
enzymes present in tears which kill bacteria
(HCL) hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach to kill bacteria.
chemical defenses (body secretions)
lysozymesand gastric juices
Specific protein produced within the body in response to a specific foreign protein or bacteria
virus neutralizing - a substance produced by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination.
Another name for antibodies is
The study of immunity.
what is the ph of the human body?
most bacteria reproduce by what
binary fission (simple transverse division)
a must behavior- a bacteria that must obtain its food from dead organic matter
strict (obligate) saprophytes
Heterotrophic that must obtain their food from living organic matter
strict (obligate) parasites
Heterotrophic bacteria that can obtain their food from dead or living organic matter
types of defenses of the body against infection
mechanical, physiological, chemical
functional defenses of the body against infection
types of physiological defenses of the body against infection
inflammation, fever, phagocytosis
the substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. They may come from within or from outside the body. They are literally an agent that causes the body temperature to rise
(white blood cells) scavengers - cell ingestion like pac man.
specific chemical substances found within the body that protect us from infection
useful substance (glands).
Specific proteins produced by the body in response to a specific foreign protein (antigen) or bacteria
trigger production of antibodes
medical name for antibodies chemical defense against infection.
virus neutralizing substance produced individually by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination
glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with antigen. Once formed in the body, it will remain forever. It may decrease over the years. Another name is immunogoblin (Ig). They are classified as chemical defenses against specific infection in the body
The study of immunity
a highly developed state of resistance of the body in response to a specific infection or disease.
the absence or suppression of factors responsible for development of immunity.
Characteristics of Antigen
very specific; true. A true antibody is a substance produced by the body and has bivalent receptor sites (two ends) and only formed in response to antigens. A true antibody will have bivalent receptor sites; if incomplete, (only one end) an allergic reaction can occur
kinds of immunity
Natural (innate) immunity Acquired immunity
type of immunity that is inborn (at conception, not birth)
natural (innate) immunity
three types of natural (innate) immunity
A type of natural immunity where a particular race is predisposed to a disease
Red Blood Cells are not round but look like a sickle, absence or lack blood
sickle cell anemia
distemper non-human disease
obtained immunity through the natural life process (not born with)
type of immunity- natural life process. The body was actively involved in producing antibodies.
naturally acquired immunity
The body was actively involved in producing antibodies. Having a disease and recovering from it since you didn't die from the disease
Naturally acquired Active immunity
naturally . The body was not directly involved in producing antibodies
Naturally acquired Passive immunity
types of Naturally acquired Passive immunity
colostrumbreast milkplacental transfer
not obtained through the natural life process but by a shot or immunization.
artificially acquired immunity
artificially acquired active; given when healthy to build up immunity against the infectionsExample DPT
artifically acquired active; poisonous substances that have been modified in the laboratory setting and used to convey immunity by shot or vaccine
Active immunity _______ than passive immunity, however, it is _________ established. The immunity established would never be formed in the body without _______________
lasts longermore slowlythe vaccination
a weakened active strain, live or dead (flu shot)
not sure how to make this a card. I don't really know how it goes with the artificially acquired active
Live or dead microorganisms, extracts (PPD) - purified protein derivative, the TB skin test
Conveyed by artificial means instantaneously through a pre-formed antibody. Last the shortest time -7- 10 days
artificially acquired passive immunity
examples of artificially acquired passive immunity
immune serum, antiserum, gamma globulin.
level of controls of microrganisms
process of completely removing and destroying ALL LIFE FORMS and their products (endospores and exotoxins) in or on a substance
the process of destruction of ALL PATHOGENIC organism (infectious agents) from an object through physical or chemical means
literally means against the presence of microorganisms - the prevention of growth of microorganisms, without necessarily killing them. [By preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative organisms.]
the agent to achieve antisepsis. It does not kill a germs but prevents its growth and multiplication
physical methods of control of microorganisms
Scrubbing Heat - . (1) Incineration (2) Dry heat - (3) Moist heat Cold temperatures Ultraviolet light (UV)
The actual mechanical method of moving hands with a soft scrub brush and using a disinfectant soap.
most common physical method of control of microorganisms
three types of heat methods of control of microorganisms
incinerationdry heat moist heat
Burning / Flaming as a lab technique.
three types of moist heat
Boiling - liquid state to gaseous state.Free-flowing steamSteam under pressure: autoclave
The best method; chemical or physical to achieve true sterilization
steam under pressure: autoclave
Name the constant temperature, standard pressure, and standard exposure time for autoclave
Standard temperature: 121 degrees C – 250 degrees FStandard pressure: 15 lbs.Standard exposure time: 15 minutes*15lbs @ 121 degrees for 15 minutesIf constant for temperature, pressure, and time, all forms of life known to man will be killed.
_________ will ______ down the rate of decomposition. This is achieved because it __________ moisture.
means above violet, it is bactericidal, which means it will kill most bacteria. Bacteria, however, will build up an immunity to it
ultra violet light
chemical methods to control microrganisms
Chemical agents used to disinfect. Substances which rid pathogens on objects.
Chemical disinfectant that kills a wide variety of germs or pathogens (microorganisms).
Chemical disinfectants which kill bacteria.
Chemical disinfectants which kill fungi, yeast, moles, and fungus, i.e., athlete’s foot and ringworm’s.
Chemical disinfectants which kill virus.
Chemical disinfectants used to kill insects. Vectors
Chemical disinfectants used to kill larva of insects.
Factors influencing the action of disinfectants (8)
(1) Nature of the disinfectant - fit the disinfectant to the problem.(2) Concentration of the disinfectant, as you increase the concentration, you increase the disinfectant’s ability.(3) Nature of the material to be disinfected.(4) Number of microorganisms present.(5) Kind of microorganism present i.e., if a germ uses a germicide.(6) Time of exposure to disinfectant - if you increase exposure time, you will increase the disinfectant’s quality.(7) Temperature of disinfectant during exposure. If you increase the water temperature, the disinfectant will be diluted into, you will increase the effectiveness.(8) pH of disinfectant during exposure.
Disinfectants suitable for mortuary procedures
Halogens AlcoholsAldehydes Phenolic compounds Quatenary ammonium compounds (quats)
types of halogens or salt formers (2)
(bleaches) e.g.: NAOCL - household bleach. Standard solution is 1:10 dilution; standard external disinfectant per CDC (Center for Disease Control).
iodine; betadine (rust or yellow color) contains iodine.
types of alcohols
Ethyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol
use grain to produce and the only alcohol fit for human consumption
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)
rubbing alcohol - Disinfectant
alcohol deprived of hydrogen
types of aldehydes
(Formaldehyde solution) mixture of formaldehyde gas and water. Compare strength using an index.
2% as Cidex. A better disinfectant than formalin (formaldehyde) but not as good as a preservative.
the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in a 100 milliliter of solution. Also represent percentage of formaldehyde within that product or container.
The highest index used in embalming is _____ The saturation point is (what percentage) by weight - (what percentage) by volume.
is 8 to 10 grams - the lowest index used in embalming.
disinfectants based on the chemical phenol
types of phenolic compounds
Phenol Cresol Hexachlorophene
(carbolic acid) - it is acidic in terms of pH.(1) Used as a cauterizer - to sear off or prevent leakage from tissue.(2) Used as a bleaching agent
a member of the phenolic compound. It's household name is Lysol
a phenolic compound which is a topical disinfectant
also called quats
Quatenary ammonium compounds
examples of chemicals used as a quartenary ammonium compounds
Benzalkonium Chloride Zephrian Chloride
naturally acquired active
artificially acquired passive
artificially acquired active
transfer of placental antibodies
naturally acquired passive
naturally acquired passive
artificially acquired active
artificially acquired passive
naturally acquired active
artificially acquired active
artificially acquired passive
(pus formers) round shaped and produce pus. They are ALL gram POSITIVE bacteria.
the ability of an organism to cause infection in man
round shaped cluster bacteria / golden in color
Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus
Skin abscesses Food intoxication Secondary infections Nosocomial (“staph”) infections- Toxic shock syndrome
a well-defined localized collection of pus. Visually seen on the surface of the skin. Would include: Acne (black heads, white heads), zits, impetigo, boils, and abscesses of a hair follicle (carbuncles and furuncles)
release of a poisonous substance – ptomaine food poisoning - milk, cheese.
second and generally more complicated, and potentially more lethal of a mixed infection.
acquired in hospital (often transmitted by the hospital STAFF) - most famous secondary infection
Nosocomial (“staph”) infections
Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus
1. Round-shaped 2. Grows in clusters 3. Produces a golden pigment in laboratory 4. Opportunists in normal flora (living on skin) 5. Abscess - typical lesion - the color of the pus is a yellow color 6. Gram (stain) positive and would appear blue 7. Exotoxins -Poison substance produced and released all the time and continuously to the outside of certain bacteria; .e.g.: Tetanus, Cholera
Portal of entry Staphylococcus aureus
broken skin; (staph attempts to invade deeper tissues)
Portal of exit Staphylococcus aureus
pus with living bacteria
Mode of transportation (Staphylococcus aureus)
Direct, person-to-person (physical contact)
round shaped bacteria that grows in chains
Pathogenicity of Streptococcus pyogenes
Septic sore throat Scarlet fever Rheumatic fever Puerperal sepsis
septic sore throat
appearance of body scarlet strawberry tongue
Aschoff bodies is the scar tissue which forms in the body of a patient who has recovered from this type of infection. It is usually on the heart valves and later will cause problems.
(child bed fever) occurs within the first six weeks following child birth in the mother, not the child.
Characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes
Round shaped bacteriaGrows in chains of round shaped bacteria.Produces pus, as shown by species name.Cellulitis Strict pathogen Gram positive - will stain blue
- typical lesion - wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. It appears as a red streak just under the surface of the skin.
Strict pathogen - not in normal flora. If you come in contact, you will be infected
Portal of entry of Streptococcus pyogenes
portal of exit of Streptococcus pyogenes
Mode of transportation (Streptococcus pyogenes)
direct person-to-person (droplet) infection or indirect from fomites (contaminated instruments).
infection of the lungs
Pathogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Lobar pneumonia Meningitis Otitis media
a type of infection of the lungs confined to one or more lobes of the lung (almost 95% of the cases are caused by streptococcus pneumoniae)
inflammation of the brain
middle ear infection
Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Round shaped grows chainsGrows in pairs Commonly called pneumococcus Gram positive, appears blueAlways forms a capsule (slime layer).Normal flora - usually seasonal, winter and spring.
round shaped and grows in pairs
Commonly called pneumococcus, which generates green pus
Portal of entry and exit Streptococcus pneumoniae
Mode of transportation Streptococcus pneumonia
Person-to-person droplet infection.
5 bacteria names belonging in the round shaped bacteria group
Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumococcusNeisseria gonorrheaNeissera meningitis
venereal disease, ROUND Shaped
Pathogenicity of Neisseria gonorrhea
gonorrhea- . Also causes: Opthalmia neonatorum
2nd common STD reported
disease of newborn’s EYES reported in first 30 days of infants. Infants receive 1% silver nitrate to kill this infection.
Characteristic of Neisseria gonorrhea
Round shaped bacteriaDiplococcus - coffee bean shaped.Gonococcus- common name of Neisseria gonorrheaPili- little hairs that attach to initial site (urethra)No immunity gained - male usually seeks treatment first.Gram negative - (red)
little hair like projections on the outside to aid in attachment to the urethra (initial site of infection).
Portal of entry Neisseria gonorrhea
Genital Urinary Tract(GUT)
mode of transmission Neisseria gonorrhea
direct person-to-person by means of physical contact
besides, Neisseria gonorrhea, this is another round shaped bacteria that is Gram negative
Pathogenicity of Neisseria meningititis
Meningitis (epidemic) meningis Meningococcemia -
an infection of the three layer membrane of the brain that attacks the central nervous system
Meningitis (epidemic) meningis
a secondary infection of meningitis. It is a fulminating blood poisoning. It is sudden, severe and overwhelming
Characteristics of Neisseria meningititis
Round shapedDiplococcusMeningococcusGram negative and appear red in the gram stain.Especially favors the nasopharynx.Endotoxin - a poisonous substance only released with the cell producing it is destroyed.
Portal of entry and exit Neisseria meningititis
Mode of transmission Neisseria meningititis
direct (droplet) person-to-person transmission.
rod shaped bacteria of the small or large intestinal tract
rod shaped bacteria - causes typhoid fever and infection of the intestinal tract.
causes food infection. The food has the bacteria growing within the food itself. Found in foods of hogs, horses, fowl, turtles, oysters. Gram negative
Characteristic of Salmonella enteriditis
Rod shaped Gram negative and appears red. Not (Never) part of the normal flora.
Portal of entry of Salmonella enteriditis
Portal of exit of Salmonella enteriditis
Mode of transmission of Salmonella enteriditis
indirect - food, milk, water or indirectly animal - cockroaches, fly’s (mechanical vectors)
rod shaped bacteria that causes bacillary dysentery. Gram negative
A coliform, bacteria, which causes green discoloration associated with decomposition. Rod shaped. Gram negative
E (Escherichia) coli
Medically during life E coli causes this - an inflammation of the small intestine
10% and more severe form of lobar pneumonia plus urinary infection tract. Rod shaped. Gram negative
causes secondary infections in burn victims, most motile (movement) of bacilli. Bacteria. rod shaped. Long whip like flagella on all sides. The gram stain (red) negative.
(look like a comma) causes Asiatic cholera. Enterotoxin – a poisonous substance released which causes water loss.
Gram positive, (blue), rod shaped bacteria. They grow in the absence of oxygen
name the 7 bacteria discussed in the enteric bacilli group
Salmonella typhi Salmonella enteriditis Shigella species E (Escherichia) coli -Klebsiella pheumoniaeProteus speciesVibrio cholerae
name the 5 bacteria in the round shaped pyogenic cocci group
Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae Neisseria gonorrheaNeisseria meningititis
name the bacteria in the rod shaped anaerobe group
Clostridium tetaniClostridium bolulinum Clostridium perfringens (welchii) Clostridium difficileBacteroides species
A. Pathogenicity 1. Tetanus (lock jaw) continuous muscle contraction - can form endospores.B. Characteristic 1. Produces endospores only under adverse conditions and grow at one end. 2. Exotoxin - neurotoxin - a poisonous substance with an affinity for the nervous system of the muscles of mastication. 3. Causes continuous muscle spasms. 4. Certain amount of necrotic (dead) tissue must be present. 5. Infectious, not communicable. C. Portal of entry - skin. D. Mode of transmission - indirect (soil) no person-to-person transmission
causes botulism - Most lethal form of food intoxication (poison) 1 millionth of a gram is the lethal dose to man. 1/2 lb. would kill the world. Prove to develop in home canning especially alkaline vegetables (beans and corn) fortunately heat liable, even though it produces endospores
has the ability to cause three infections in humans.
Clostridium perfringens (welchii)
Pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens (welchii)
tissue gasgas gangrenefood intoxication.
an infection that only develops after death (post mortem). Most common areas where it will will appear is usually in the extremities.
an infection that only develops before death (antemortem).
a minor infection that is a release of poisonous substance
Characteristics that influence virulence of organism Clostridium perfringens
Forms endospores- enzymes ferment glucoseExotoxin - enterotoxin in food intoxication.Releases enzymes which eat fibrous protein, thus facilitating the rate of the spreading of the infection - fast spreading.Skin slip and crepitation (cracky, spongy feeling) associated with its infection.Ferments glucose, thus forming gas, which causes the cracky, spongy feeling.Normal flora of the intestinal tract.
Portal of entry of Clostridium perfringens
digestive tract for food poisoning otherwise the skin.
Mode of transmission Clostridium perfringens
indirect (soil in wounds) or fomites (trocars).
If person has ________ in life, be suspicious of _____ ______ at death.
nosocomial infection (Staph infections)Mode of transmission-Fecal oral route
causes anaerobic lung absesses and multiple infections. Only one that doesn’t tell you from its name that it will form endospores
Causes food poisoning in man
Tells you from species name that it will produce pus
Grows in pairs
Streptococcus pheumoniaeNeisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidis
Cause middle ear infection
the two bacteria that could cause meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniaeNeisseria meningitidis
Round shaped and produce pus
Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumoniae