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1

scientific study of MO’s and their effect on other living organisms (study of small life).

Microbiology

2

MO stands for

Microorganism

3

Classification or naming of all living things

Taxonomy

4

Ability to exist in either one cell or multi cell form

DIMORPHISM

5

Study of external structure and form of organism without regard to its function *generally indicated by the genus name of MO

Morphology

6

white blood cell eating

Phagocytosis

7

likelihood disease causes infection to human of MO

Virulence

8

DIVISIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY: 1. BACTERIOLOGY – Study of bacteria 2. RICKETTSIOLOGY – Study of Rickettsia (infection usually from bugs or insects) 3. VIROLOGY – Study of viruses (smallest organisms known to man, that cannot be viewed by compound microscope). 4. PROTOZOOLOGY – Study of protozoa (smallest form of animal life – i.e. ameba) 5. MYCOLOGY – Study of fungi or fungus (study of yeasts and mold) *fungi have the ability to exist in one cell or multi-cell form, called DIMORPHISM

----

9

Study of bacteria 1. Single cell of M.O.’s in kingdom of monora. 2. Reproduced by binary fission

BACTERIOLOGY

10

Study of Rickettsia (infection usually from bugs or insects)

RICKETTSIOLOGY separate family, febrile infections (Named for person discovering it. Sr. Anthony Ricketts). Could run a fever of 107 degrees – Rocky Mountain Spotted fever.

11

Study of viruses (smallest organisms known to man, that cannot be viewed by compound microscope).

VIROLOGY

12

Study of protozoa (smallest form of animal life)

PROTOZOOLOGY

13

Study of fungi (plural)or fungus (singular) (study of yeasts and mold)

MYCOLOGY –

14

fungi have the ability to exist in one cell or multi-cell form, called

DIMORPHISM

15

Classification of Living Things

Class – Homo sapiens Highest: Kingdom Keep Phylum Pulling Class Cows Order Out Family From Genus Most important Green Lowest: Species Most important Swamps

16

Genus name always capitalized

Genus name* It indicates something about the morphology - the external structure or form.* pay honor to an individual

17

the lowest level classification of any living thing.

species

18

is always in small letters. NEVER CAPITALIZED

species *It usually indicates an infection caused by that microorganism*if not usually indicates a lab characteristic

19

If the________ name does not tell us an _______ it caused by that microorganism , it will usually tell us a _____________

speciesinfectionlaboratory characteristic

20

grows in cluster ( yellow pus)

staph

21

grows in chains

strept

22

What percentage of microorganisms are non-pathegentic

87%

23

What percentage can cause infection to man

13%

24

bacteria lacks a true nucleous

prokaryotic

25

staph, streptinfections

bacteria

26

famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM).

mycoplasmas

27

febrile infections, mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever. The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (Sir Anthony Ricketts).

Rickettsia

28

Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. Parrot fever, NGU – non gonococcal urethritis

Chlamydia - parrot fever, NGU

29

smallest microorganism known to man. Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis

viruses

30

smallest form of animal life malaria, amebic dysentery

protozoa

31

a small protein like infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids. Syndrome – set of signs associated with disease.

Prion - creutzfeldt - Jakob (referred to as CJ)

32

Of the eight (8) different families or groups of microorganisms that are a major health importance, which cause the greatest majority of infection in man

bacteria

33

8 different families or groups of microorganisms

1.Bacteria - staph, strept. Infection. Prokaryotic – bacteria lacks a true nucleous.2. Mycoplasmas - famous in humans for causing an infection called primary atypical pneumonia. No cell wall, smallest free living organism known to man. (SMALLEST FREE LIVING ORGANISM). 3. Rickettsia - febrile infections mostly spread by insects, e.g., typhus fever. The infection accompanying these is high fever and last a longer period of time. Flea born or rat, also transmitted by louse or lice. (Sr. Anthony Ricketts).4. Chlamydia - parrot fever, NGU. Strict parasite, smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses. Transmitted by seedling birds. NGU – non gonococcal urethritis 5. Viruses - smallest microorganism known to man. Measles, mumps, flu, hepatitis, smallpox.6. Protozoa - smallest form of animal life - malaria, amebic dysentery.7. Fungi - yeast and molds; athlete’s foot, thrush, PCP.Ability to exist in more than one form – unicellular or multicellular8. Prion - creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) a small protein like infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids.

34

What does non pathogenic mean?

do not cause infection in humans

35

study of external structure and form of any organism without regard to its function.

morphology

36

largest unit of measurement

micron

37

smallest unit of measurement

angstrom

38

medium unit of measurement

nanometer

39

How many main shapes of bacteria are there?

3

40

a single spherical (round) shaped bacteria.

Spherical (round) coccus Cocci-two or more spherical (round) shaped bacteria.

41

a single rod (capsule) shaped bacteria.

Rod (capsule) bacillus Bacilli - two or more rod (capsule) shaped bacteria

42

a single spiral shaped bacteria.

Spiral - spirillum Spirilla two or more spiral bacteria

43

comma shaped bacteria

Vibrio Example of disease: Cholera

44

S curved or autopsy needle shaped. Also, snake shaped bacteria

Spirillum

45

corkscrew shaped bacteria

Spirochete Example: Syphilis

46

grow in pairs - a variation of round shaped bacteria

Diplococci

47

grows in clusters of round shaped bacteria - like grapes

Staphylococci

48

grow together in chains

Steptobacilli

49

the outermost layer which gives shape and integrity (strength) to bacteria; its makeup used to differ among microorganisms; e.g. high lipid (fat) for TB; protein in Gram stain (blue if yes, red if no). This test shows if there is protein in the bacteria of TB

cell wall

50

a thinner, inner layer; controls entry and exit into the bacteria. Regulate entry / exit of food

cell membrane

51

any living substance present in the cell

cytoplasm

52

always located on the outside of certain bacteria it protects cells from phagocytosis. This Jelly like material is located around the outside of certain bacteria.. It protects it against a natural process of the body, phagocytosis, by which the body attempts to destroy anything foreign

capsule (slime layer)

53

when the body attempts to destroy anything foreign, this is known as

phagocytosis

54

surrounds, ingests and destroys anything foreign. A natural process which your body attempts to accomplish. An attempt to try to protect your body against anything foreign. Thus any organism that invades your body and has a slime capsule is more likely to cause infection because of the slime structure. It will take the bodies white blood cells longer to defend against the organism.

phagocytosiscell ingestion

55

the likelihood an organism will cause infection in man. Relative power to produce a disease.

virulence

56

jelly-like material located on outside of certain bacteria; protects cells from natural process of body called phagocytosis, thus enhancing virulence of the microorganisms

capsule(slime layer)

57

best means of protection any microorganism can possess; NOT a means of reproduction; only one per cell, when formed; Bacillus and Clostridium are the only two bacteria that could form spores.

Endospore - (Inside)

58

only two genera that could form spores

Bacillus and Clostridium

59

aerobic - grows in the presence of oxygen

Bacillus

60

anaerobic - grows without the presence of oxygen.

Clostridium

61

NOTE: only genus to be able to form spores

--

62

any bacteria that could never form endospores, or any bacteria that can produce endospores, but currently is not producing them. Never form endospores, a vegetative bacteria that does not have a genus name

vegetative bacteria

63

any bacteria currently producing endospores. This occurs only under adverse living conditions of the bacteria. Never more than one spore at a time.

sporulating bacteria

64

when a free endospore forms new vegetative cells when good living conditions return

germinating bacteria

65

used for movement of bacteria; long, whip like structures attached to the outside of the cell. There are many variations as to how many and where they are located. (e.g. monotrichous and peritrichous) Move to another food source or away from the enemy.

flagella

66

One (long single) whip like structure

Monotrichous

67

Several whip like structures

Peritrichous

68

Smallest form of animal life

Protozoa

69

shorter than Flagella and used to aid in attachment of an organism to the site of infection; e.g. Gonorrhea.

Pili “Little Hairs”

70

set of signs associated with disease.

syndrome

71

The presence of a _______ will enhance the likelihood the bacteria will cause infection.

slime layer

72

name three heterotrophic bacteria

strict (obligate) saprophytes
strict (obligate) parasites
faculatative bacteria

73

all bacteria - pathogens are so classified and must have a source of carbon. Bacteria that obtain their food from INORGANIC matter. They manufacture their own carbon

autotrophic bacteria

74

all organisms that cause infection in man are classified as heterotrophic and obtain their food from ORGANIC matter - food that contains carbon. Humans contain carbon - glucose

heterotrophic bacteria

75

a VISIBLE growth of bacteria growing on a culture medium

bacterial colony

76

the material you attempt to grow bacteria

medium

77

to grow in a laboratory setting bacteria in a medium of nutrient, broth, or blood agar.

culture

78

any organism that must have presence of oxygen to live.

strict (obligate) aerobes

79

organisms that must have absence of oxygen to live

strict (obligate) anaerobes

80

organisms that live in the presence of oxygen, but at a level less than that required of humans

microaerophiles

81

organisms that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen

facultative bacteria

82

excess of water

edema

83

loss of water

dehydration

84

percentage of HYDROGEN (H) ion in solution; slightly alkaline for most pathogens

pH

85

a pH above 7 is

alkaline

86

a pH below 7 is

acidic

87

the smallest microorganism known to man that cannot be seen with the ordinary compound light microscope

virus

88

smallest FREE LIVING organism known to man

mycoplasmas

89

NOTE: In regards to the shape of bacteria... if there are two or more the answer ends with a vowel

example:coccibacillispirilla

90

smallest form of animal life

protozoa

91

True or False?Viruses CANNOT live alone?

True

92

True or False?Chlamydia is SMALLER than bacteria, but LARGER than viruses

True

93

Measles, mumps, flu, and hepatitis are examples of what?

Viruses

94

Malaria and amebic dysentery are examples of what?

Protozoa

95

the lowest temperature at which an organism can live

minimum temperature

96

the highest temperature at which an organism can live.

maximum temperature

97

the temperature at which organism grows best.

optimum temperature

98

organisms that grow best at cold temperature. Usually below 20 degrees Celsius or less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit

Psychrophiles (cryophiles) (CHRO- CRY- COLD)

99

most pathogens - bacteria that prefer medium temperature. Usually between 20 - 40 degrees C. The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of 98.6 F or 37 C. When the body temperature goes up (fever) it does so to kill the organism.

Mesophiles (MESO MEDIUM)

100

helps to kill most pathogens that like medium temperature.

fever

101

The optimum of most pathogens is normal body temperature of

98.6 F or 37 C.

102

organisms that grow best at warm temperatures. Usually above 40 degrees C

thermophiles(THINK THERMAL UNDERWEAR TO WARM UP OR A THERMOS OF HOT COFFEE)

103

ultraviolet means

above violet

104

ultra violet light is bactericidal which means what?

will kill bacteria but will not kill all organisms because over a period of time organisms exposed to excessive amounts of ultra violet light will genetically mutate and develop resistance.

105

Ultraviolet light which ___________ be seen will ______ bacteria

cannotkill

106

Deals primarily with solutions. deals with something you cannot see without a microscope.

Osmotic Pressure (Osmosis- diffusion through membranes)

107

the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in greater quantity

solvent

108

the substance or solution dealing with osmotic pressure present in lesser quantity

solute

109

name the different osmotic pressure

Isotonic solutionsHypertonic solutions Hypotonic solutions

110

is the type of Osmotic Pressure necessary to properly study bacterial cells and red blood cells to ensure no change in size, shape, and volumethe number of particles entering the cell roughly equals the number of particles leaving. The shape and integrity of the cell is maintained

Isotonic Solution

111

excess solute. If a bacteria is placed in this type of solution it changes the shape of the cell. There will be more particles leaving than entering. The end result – the cell will atrophy

hypertonic solution

112

to wrinkle or shrink

atrophy

113

the shrinkage of a bacterial cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution

plasmolysis

114

the shrinkage of a red blood cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution

crenation

115

beneath or below - less solute than normal. If a bacteria cell is placed in this solution, more particles will enter the cell than leave

hypotonic solution

116

The bursting of a bacterial cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution

plasmoptysis(MOP) mop below the counter surface

117

The bursting of a red blood cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution

hemolysis

118

living organisms living together

symbiosis

119

relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to all involved

mutualism

120

relationship of two or more organisms that is of benefit to one w/ no effect to the other e.g. normal flora (living in on the human body)

commensalism

121

relationship between two or more organisms which is of benefit to one, harmful to the other.

parasitism

122

a relationship between two or more organisms which produces an effect, be it good or bad, not possible by each one alone. Both parties have to do their part.

synergism

123

a relationship between two or more organisms in which the presence of one inhibits or prevents the growth of the other; mutual opposition or contrary action.

antagonism

124

entry establishment & multiplication of pathogens within a host. Any disease caused by a microorganism

infection

125

the mere presence of infectious material, with no reaction produced.

contamination

126

the ability of an organism to cause infection in man.

Pathogenicity

127

True or FalseA great number of pathogenicites are not infectious

True

128

relative to produce disease, the likelihood that the pathogenic organism will cause infection in man.

virulence

129

a dilution or weakening in the virulence of an organism. This will reduce or destroy its pathogenicity.

attenuation

130

micro-organisms naturally living in and on a host. Present on both dead and living bodies - the reason for disinfecting during embalming.

Indigenous flora - (normal flora)

131

resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs. Bacterial having developed a resistance to a drug.

drug-fast

132

An infection in which the causative agent (organism) comes from outside the body. Could come from on the body or from the air

exogenous infection

133

An infection which is caused by microorganisms which are normally present within the body.

endogenous infection

134

An infection of sudden onset and short duration, less than one year. Examples: Meningococcemia - Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -

acute infection

135

A fatal form of blood poisoning

Meningococcemia

136

early form of Alzheimer

Creutzfeldt - Jakob (CJ) -

137

An infection of slow onset and long duration. Greater than a year. Example: Alzheimer

chronic infection

138

An infection capable of being transmitted, either directly or indirectly, from host to host. Host could be a person or animal

communicable infection

139

means highly communicable. The likelihood that the transmission to others will occur is greater

contagious

140

are antagonism to another organism.

antibiotics

141

An infection that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a community Examples: cold and flu

endemic

142

an infection which attacks a large number of people in a community in a short period of time

epidemic infection

143

Worldwide epidemic; an infection which becomes an epidemic in a number of countries at the same timeExample: Flu of 1919 20 million died

pandemic infection

144

An infection which occurs only occasionally (now and then) in a community.

sporadic infection

145

The initial (first) infection of a mixed infection. The first of two infections

primary infection

146

An infection due to (caused by) two or more organisms. When a person or animal is suffering from two or more infections at the same time.

mixed infection

147

The second and generally more complicating infection in a mixed infection. * is usually more lethal.

secondary infection

148

An infection in which the pathogenic organisms remain confined to a particular area. Examples: Abscessed tooth

local infection

149

An infection confined to a particular area, but from which the bacteria spread to other parts of the body. An infection spreads

focal infection

150

Infection throughout, spread generally over the body by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood

general infection

151

A condition in which bacteria are in the bloodstream, but are not multiplying there. Presence of bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

152

Invasion of the bloodstream by pathogenic organisms, with their subsequent multiplication therein. Common name is “blood poisoning.”

Septicemia

153

the presence of an organism in the blood.

sepsis

154

The presence of toxins (poisonous substances) in the blood.

toxemia

155

An infection, which occurs during the course of a chronic disease and cause death.

terminal infection

156

The presence of infectious material, without a reaction necessarily being produced. This term can also refer to inanimate objects

contamination

157

inanimate objects. Seen only with a microscope

fomite

158

The invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites, i.e., those able to be seen with the unaided eye. Maggots

infestation

159

unaided eye to see the infestation

macroscopic

160

The ability (or likelihood) of a microorganism to produce disease.

virulence

161

implies a weakening or reduction in the virulence of a microorganism.

attenuation

162

An infection primarily of animals that may be secondarily transmitted to man

zoonatic

163

- inflammation of the brain

encephalitis

164

caused by mosquitoes

Encephalitis and Malaria

165

mosquitoes biting migratory birds

encephalitis

166

mosquitoes biting monkeys

malaria

167

A hospital-acquired infection; one obtained while in the hospital. Staph. (Staff)

Nosocomial

168

Literally, pus in the blood; a form of septicemia caused by pyogenic (pus-forming) bacteria. Puss in the blood. Staph. Strept

pyemia

169

An infection which causes a fever (elevated temperature).

pyremia

170

A sudden, severe, and overwhelming infection, such as spinal meningitis.

fulminating

171

Infection throughout the body, having been spread by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Sepsis, Septicemia - organisms in the blood

generalized infection

172

A seemingly inactive infection; it is apparently held in check by the body’s defense, but may spread when the body resistance is reduced.Cold sores, Syphilis. They go away but are not dead. In the case of syphilis the disease has gone to the second stage.

latent infection

173

An infection in which the clinical symptoms are not recognized or immediately detectable. TB

inapparent infection

174

An infection in which all the symptoms are easily recognized. Rubella (German measles), Mumps

typical infection

175

An infection in which all the symptoms are not easily recognizable, meaning that it could be confused with another infection. Not typical - TB. Complaint of one problem Intestinal pain and find out it is TB of the intestines

atypical infection

176

Any microorganism that causes disease in man

pathogen

177

Any microorganism that does not cause disease in man.

non-pathogen

178

types of pathogens

normal floraopportunistsstrict (obligate) pathogens

179

Microorganisms that live and grow in and on the human body. Most are non-pathogens. Indigenous

normal flora

180

Microorganisms that produce infection only under especially favorable conditions, that is, they await the right opportunity to cause infection. Pathogens contained in a person’s normal flora are usually these, since they alone cannot penetrate unbroken skin.

opportunists

181

Microorganisms that will cause an infection in man every time that a person is exposed to them. They are never a part of one’s normal flora. A must behavior Example: Strept throat

strict (obligate) pathogens

182

factors influencing virulence

toxin productionenzymescapsulesendospores

183

Poison substance

toxin production

184

Poison substance produced all the time and continuously released to the outside of certain bacteria; e.g. Tetanus, Cholera

exotoxins

185

Poison substance only released when the cell producing the bacteria is destroyed; e.g.: Spinal Meningitis.The ability of the bacteria to release a poison when the white blood cells of the body kills the bacteria

endotoxins

186

substances, which speed up the rate of a chemical reaction, without being used up or destroyed in the process

enzyme(organic catalyst)

187

an enzyme that helps spread bacteria. Increase the bacteria’s ability to spread to other parts of the body

Hyaluronidase (Spreading factor)

188

an enzyme that clots human plasma.

coagulase

189

the liquid portion of non-clotted human blood.

plasma

190

an enzymes that dissolves blood clots. Especially if the clot has caused MI (heart attack). Persons having a heart attack or stroke caused by a blood clot would receive this enzyme to prevent other blood clots.

Fibrinolysin (steptokinase)

191

jelly like material located on the outside of certain bacteria.

capsules (slime layer)

192

The presence of the slime layer will:

Enhances the bacteria’s virulence. andProtects the organism from phagocytosis

193

cell ingestion

phagocytosis

194

the best protection an organism can possess is the ability to produce spores.

endospores

195

A person or animal that possess an organism after recovery from the infection it causes. The greatest risk of spreading an infection is immediately after recovery

active carrier of infection

196

A person or animal that has a particular organism, even though they have never suffered from the infection it causes, and passes it along to anotherExample: Typhoid Mary.

passive carrier infection

197

sources of infection

A person or animal currently ill of the infection.orChronic animal or human carriers

198

an animal or person that possesses an organism and transmits to someone else during recovery from the infection it causes

convalescent carrier of infection

199

outside environments

environment

200

modes of transmission of infections

direct transmissionindirect transmission

201

types of direct transmission of infections

physical contact (sexually transmitted disease)droplet infection (aerosol- sneezing)congenital- rubella (German measles) contacted during pregnancy from mother to child

202

types of indirect transmission of infections

a. Food poisoning (could taste fine at time of eating) b. Milk (bovine strain of TB) c. Fomites - lifeless inanimate objects - doorknobs, money, trocars, toilet seats, etc. d. Water (water signs – approved: Dept. of Health) e. Soil - tetanus or lock jaw. f. Vectors - an animal usually an insect that is serving as an indirect mode of transmission.

203

portals of entry and exit of pathogens

1. Skin and mucous membranes - staph. These organisms are living on your skin and are opportunistic and invades the body through a cut. The skin is the largest organ of the body (liver the largest organ in the body) 2. Respiratory tract - TB, pneumonia (infection of lung tissue itself) 3. Digestive tract - cholera, loss of 10quarts of water per day), dysentery 4. Genito - urinary tract (gut) - STD’s (sexually transmitted disease’s) 5. Placenta - rubella (German measles) transmitted from mother via the placenta into developing infant. Rubella always means German measles. (we would prefer a mother to be sick with 10 day measles so as not to be sick with this)

204

vehicles of exit pathogens

fecesurinesemenvaginal secretionssputumsalivabloodpus and lesion exudatestears

205

Waste product from the digestive tract - dysentery, cholera extremely watery stool

feces

206

a substance made of a combination of saliva and mucus brought up from the respiratory tract.

sputum(phlegm)

207

produced by three sets of salivary glands. Vehicle of exit of disease spread to humanscytomegalovirus (CID) rabies

saliva (spit)

208

a vehicle for exit of disease spread to humans. Example: hepatitis A & B

blood

209

A vehicle of exit of disease to humans; consists of both dead and living pus and blood. Examples: abscesses, decubitus ulcers – bed sores

Pus and lesion exudates

210

contain enzymes that kill bacteria

tears

211

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF AN INFECTION:

1. Portal of entry of the pathogens and elective localization – when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called “elective localization.”2. Number of organisms - the more in number of an organism, the more likely you will be infected.3. Virulence of the organism - the likelihood an organism will cause infection in humans.(measuring how likely it is to cause infection.) Example: 1918 Flu – they died.4. Resistance of the host - having a good immune system. Good resistance to the organism. (Deals with immune ty of the host). Opportunistic or secondary infection. Health or illness = N (V) R N - number of organisms V - virulence of the organism R - resistance N x V divided by - R

212

when an organism chooses to restrict itself to a particular area or region of the body this is called

localization

213

inhibits microorganisms from entering the body.

Mechanical Defenses (Anatomical)

214

anatomical barriers

skin mucous membranes - soft moist tissue side the nose, ear, mouth, and eyes. Bony encasements - skull, ribcage.

215

- the bodies total response to an injury.

inflammation

216

an agent that causes the body temperature to risethe substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. may come from within or from outside the body.

pyrogens

217

(white blood cells) scavengers - large cell ingestors like packman.

phagocytosis

218

enzymes present in tears which kill bacteria

lysozyme

219

(HCL) hydrochloric acid produced within the stomach to kill bacteria.

gastric juice

220

chemical defenses (body secretions)

lysozymesand gastric juices

221

Specific protein produced within the body in response to a specific foreign protein or bacteria

antibodies

222

virus neutralizing - a substance produced by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination.

interferon

223

Another name for antibodies is

immunogoblin (Ig).

224

The study of immunity.

Immunology

225

what is the ph of the human body?

7.4-7.5

226

most bacteria reproduce by what

binary fission (simple transverse division)

227

a must behavior- a bacteria that must obtain its food from dead organic matter

strict (obligate) saprophytes

228

Heterotrophic that must obtain their food from living organic matter

strict (obligate) parasites

229

Heterotrophic bacteria that can obtain their food from dead or living organic matter

facultative bacteria

230

types of defenses of the body against infection

mechanical, physiological, chemical

231

functional defenses of the body against infection

physiological defenses

232

types of physiological defenses of the body against infection

inflammation, fever, phagocytosis

233

the substance that stimulates the production that causes a fever. They may come from within or from outside the body. They are literally an agent that causes the body temperature to rise

pyrogens

234

(white blood cells) scavengers - cell ingestion like pac man.

phagocytosis

235

specific chemical substances found within the body that protect us from infection

chemical defense

236

useful substance (glands).

body secretions

237

Specific proteins produced by the body in response to a specific foreign protein (antigen) or bacteria

antibodies

238

trigger production of antibodes

antigens

239

medical name for antibodies chemical defense against infection.

Immunoglobulins (Ig)

240

virus neutralizing substance produced individually by the body cells. Can be enhanced by vaccination

interferon

241

glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with antigen. Once formed in the body, it will remain forever. It may decrease over the years. Another name is immunogoblin (Ig). They are classified as chemical defenses against specific infection in the body

antibodies

242

The study of immunity

immunology

243

a highly developed state of resistance of the body in response to a specific infection or disease.

immunity

244

the absence or suppression of factors responsible for development of immunity.

Susceptibility

245

Characteristics of Antigen

very specific; true. A true antibody is a substance produced by the body and has bivalent receptor sites (two ends) and only formed in response to antigens. A true antibody will have bivalent receptor sites; if incomplete, (only one end) an allergic reaction can occur

246

kinds of immunity

Natural (innate) immunity Acquired immunity

247

type of immunity that is inborn (at conception, not birth)

natural (innate) immunity

248

three types of natural (innate) immunity

racialspeciesindividual- interferon

249

A type of natural immunity where a particular race is predisposed to a disease

racial immunity

250

Red Blood Cells are not round but look like a sickle, absence or lack blood

sickle cell anemia

251

distemper non-human disease

species

252

obtained immunity through the natural life process (not born with)

acquired immunity

253

type of immunity- natural life process. The body was actively involved in producing antibodies.

naturally acquired immunity

254

The body was actively involved in producing antibodies. Having a disease and recovering from it since you didn't die from the disease

Naturally acquired Active immunity

255

naturally . The body was not directly involved in producing antibodies

Naturally acquired Passive immunity

256

types of Naturally acquired Passive immunity

colostrumbreast milkplacental transfer

257

not obtained through the natural life process but by a shot or immunization.

artificially acquired immunity

258

artificially acquired active; given when healthy to build up immunity against the infectionsExample DPT

vaccine

259

artifically acquired active; poisonous substances that have been modified in the laboratory setting and used to convey immunity by shot or vaccine

toxoids

260

Active immunity _______ than passive immunity, however, it is _________ established. The immunity established would never be formed in the body without _______________

lasts longermore slowlythe vaccination

261

a weakened active strain, live or dead (flu shot)

attenuated strain

262

not sure how to make this a card. I don't really know how it goes with the artificially acquired active

Live or dead microorganisms, extracts (PPD) - purified protein derivative, the TB skin test

263

Conveyed by artificial means instantaneously through a pre-formed antibody. Last the shortest time -7- 10 days

artificially acquired passive immunity

264

examples of artificially acquired passive immunity

immune serum, antiserum, gamma globulin.

265

level of controls of microrganisms

sterilizationdisinfectionantisepsis

266

process of completely removing and destroying ALL LIFE FORMS and their products (endospores and exotoxins) in or on a substance

sterilization

267

the process of destruction of ALL PATHOGENIC organism (infectious agents) from an object through physical or chemical means

disinfection

268

literally means against the presence of microorganisms - the prevention of growth of microorganisms, without necessarily killing them. [By preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative organisms.]

antisepsis

269

the agent to achieve antisepsis. It does not kill a germs but prevents its growth and multiplication

antiseptic

270

physical methods of control of microorganisms

Scrubbing Heat - . (1) Incineration (2) Dry heat - (3) Moist heat Cold temperatures Ultraviolet light (UV)

271

The actual mechanical method of moving hands with a soft scrub brush and using a disinfectant soap.

scrubbing

272

most common physical method of control of microorganisms

heat

273

three types of heat methods of control of microorganisms

incinerationdry heat moist heat

274

Burning / Flaming as a lab technique.

incineration

275

Convection oven

dry heat

276

three types of moist heat

Boiling - liquid state to gaseous state.Free-flowing steamSteam under pressure: autoclave

277

The best method; chemical or physical to achieve true sterilization

steam under pressure: autoclave

278

Name the constant temperature, standard pressure, and standard exposure time for autoclave

Standard temperature: 121 degrees C – 250 degrees FStandard pressure: 15 lbs.Standard exposure time: 15 minutes*15lbs @ 121 degrees for 15 minutesIf constant for temperature, pressure, and time, all forms of life known to man will be killed.

279

_________ will ______ down the rate of decomposition. This is achieved because it __________ moisture.

Refrigerationslowremoves

280

means above violet, it is bactericidal, which means it will kill most bacteria. Bacteria, however, will build up an immunity to it

ultra violet light

281

chemical methods to control microrganisms

Disinfectants

282

Chemical agents used to disinfect. Substances which rid pathogens on objects.

disinfectants

283

Chemical disinfectant that kills a wide variety of germs or pathogens (microorganisms).

germicide

284

Chemical disinfectants which kill bacteria.

bactericide

285

Chemical disinfectants which kill fungi, yeast, moles, and fungus, i.e., athlete’s foot and ringworm’s.

fungicide

286

Chemical disinfectants which kill virus.

viricide

287

Chemical disinfectants used to kill insects. Vectors

insecticides

288

Chemical disinfectants used to kill larva of insects.

larvacide

289

Factors influencing the action of disinfectants (8)

(1) Nature of the disinfectant - fit the disinfectant to the problem.(2) Concentration of the disinfectant, as you increase the concentration, you increase the disinfectant’s ability.(3) Nature of the material to be disinfected.(4) Number of microorganisms present.(5) Kind of microorganism present i.e., if a germ uses a germicide.(6) Time of exposure to disinfectant - if you increase exposure time, you will increase the disinfectant’s quality.(7) Temperature of disinfectant during exposure. If you increase the water temperature, the disinfectant will be diluted into, you will increase the effectiveness.(8) pH of disinfectant during exposure.

290

Disinfectants suitable for mortuary procedures

Halogens AlcoholsAldehydes Phenolic compounds Quatenary ammonium compounds (quats)

291

types of halogens or salt formers (2)

Hypochlorites Iodophors

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(bleaches) e.g.: NAOCL - household bleach. Standard solution is 1:10 dilution; standard external disinfectant per CDC (Center for Disease Control).

hydrochlorites

293

iodine; betadine (rust or yellow color) contains iodine.

iodophors

294

types of alcohols

Ethyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol

295

use grain to produce and the only alcohol fit for human consumption

ethyl alcohol (ethanol)

296

rubbing alcohol - Disinfectant

isopropyl alcohol

297

alcohol deprived of hydrogen

Aldehydes

298

types of aldehydes

Formalin Glutaraldehyde

299

(Formaldehyde solution) mixture of formaldehyde gas and water. Compare strength using an index.

formalin

300

2% as Cidex. A better disinfectant than formalin (formaldehyde) but not as good as a preservative.

Glutaraldehyde

301

the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in a 100 milliliter of solution. Also represent percentage of formaldehyde within that product or container.

index

302

The highest index used in embalming is _____ The saturation point is (what percentage) by weight - (what percentage) by volume.

36 index.37%40%

303

is 8 to 10 grams - the lowest index used in embalming.

jaundice

304

disinfectants based on the chemical phenol

Phenolic compounds

305

types of phenolic compounds

Phenol Cresol Hexachlorophene

306

(carbolic acid) - it is acidic in terms of pH.(1) Used as a cauterizer - to sear off or prevent leakage from tissue.(2) Used as a bleaching agent

phenol

307

a member of the phenolic compound. It's household name is Lysol

Cresol

308

a phenolic compound which is a topical disinfectant

hexachlorophene

309

also called quats

Quatenary ammonium compounds

310

examples of chemicals used as a quartenary ammonium compounds

Benzalkonium Chloride Zephrian Chloride

311

german measles

naturally acquired active

312

anti serum

artificially acquired passive

313

tetanus toxoid

artificially acquired active

314

transfer of placental antibodies

naturally acquired passive

315

colostrum

naturally acquired passive

316

immunization

artificially acquired active

317

gamma globin

artificially acquired passive

318

lobar pneumonia

naturally acquired active

319

vaccination

artificially acquired active

320

immune system

artificially acquired passive

321

(pus formers) round shaped and produce pus. They are ALL gram POSITIVE bacteria.

Pyogenic cocci

322

the ability of an organism to cause infection in man

Pathogenicity

323

round shaped cluster bacteria / golden in color

Staphylococcus aureus

324

Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus

Skin abscesses Food intoxication Secondary infections Nosocomial (“staph”) infections- Toxic shock syndrome

325

a well-defined localized collection of pus. Visually seen on the surface of the skin. Would include: Acne (black heads, white heads), zits, impetigo, boils, and abscesses of a hair follicle (carbuncles and furuncles)

Skin abscesses

326

release of a poisonous substance – ptomaine food poisoning - milk, cheese.

Food intoxication

327

second and generally more complicated, and potentially more lethal of a mixed infection.

Secondary infections

328

acquired in hospital (often transmitted by the hospital STAFF) - most famous secondary infection

Nosocomial (“staph”) infections

329

Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus

1. Round-shaped 2. Grows in clusters 3. Produces a golden pigment in laboratory 4. Opportunists in normal flora (living on skin) 5. Abscess - typical lesion - the color of the pus is a yellow color 6. Gram (stain) positive and would appear blue 7. Exotoxins -Poison substance produced and released all the time and continuously to the outside of certain bacteria; .e.g.: Tetanus, Cholera

330

Portal of entry Staphylococcus aureus

broken skin; (staph attempts to invade deeper tissues)

331

Portal of exit Staphylococcus aureus

pus with living bacteria

332

Mode of transportation (Staphylococcus aureus)

Direct, person-to-person (physical contact)

333

round shaped bacteria that grows in chains

Streptococcus pyogenes

334

Pathogenicity of Streptococcus pyogenes

Septic sore throat Scarlet fever Rheumatic fever Puerperal sepsis

335

septic sore throat

strept throat

336

appearance of body scarlet strawberry tongue

scarlet fever

337

Aschoff bodies is the scar tissue which forms in the body of a patient who has recovered from this type of infection. It is usually on the heart valves and later will cause problems.

Rheumatic fever

338

(child bed fever) occurs within the first six weeks following child birth in the mother, not the child.

Puerperal sepsis

339

Characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes

Round shaped bacteriaGrows in chains of round shaped bacteria.Produces pus, as shown by species name.Cellulitis Strict pathogen Gram positive - will stain blue

340

- typical lesion - wide spread inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. It appears as a red streak just under the surface of the skin.

Cellulitis

341

Strict pathogen - not in normal flora. If you come in contact, you will be infected

Streptococcus pyogenes

342

Portal of entry of Streptococcus pyogenes

respiratory tract

343

portal of exit of Streptococcus pyogenes

sputum

344

Mode of transportation (Streptococcus pyogenes)

direct person-to-person (droplet) infection or indirect from fomites (contaminated instruments).

345

infection of the lungs

Streptococcus pneumoniae

346

Pathogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Lobar pneumonia Meningitis Otitis media

347

a type of infection of the lungs confined to one or more lobes of the lung (almost 95% of the cases are caused by streptococcus pneumoniae)

lobar pneumonia

348

inflammation of the brain

meningitis

349

middle ear infection

Otitis media

350

Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Round shaped grows chainsGrows in pairs Commonly called pneumococcus Gram positive, appears blueAlways forms a capsule (slime layer).Normal flora - usually seasonal, winter and spring.

351

round shaped and grows in pairs

diplococcus

352

Commonly called pneumococcus, which generates green pus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

353

Portal of entry and exit Streptococcus pneumoniae

respiratory tract.

354

Mode of transportation Streptococcus pneumonia

Person-to-person droplet infection.

355

5 bacteria names belonging in the round shaped bacteria group

Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumococcusNeisseria gonorrheaNeissera meningitis

356

venereal disease, ROUND Shaped

Neisseria gonorrhea

357

Pathogenicity of Neisseria gonorrhea

gonorrhea- . Also causes: Opthalmia neonatorum

358

2nd common STD reported

gonorrhea

359

disease of newborn’s EYES reported in first 30 days of infants. Infants receive 1% silver nitrate to kill this infection.

Opthalmia neonatorum

360

Characteristic of Neisseria gonorrhea

Round shaped bacteriaDiplococcus - coffee bean shaped.Gonococcus- common name of Neisseria gonorrheaPili- little hairs that attach to initial site (urethra)No immunity gained - male usually seeks treatment first.Gram negative - (red)

361

little hair like projections on the outside to aid in attachment to the urethra (initial site of infection).

pili

362

Portal of entry Neisseria gonorrhea

Genital Urinary Tract(GUT)

363

mode of transmission Neisseria gonorrhea

direct person-to-person by means of physical contact

364

besides, Neisseria gonorrhea, this is another round shaped bacteria that is Gram negative

Neisseria meningititis

365

Pathogenicity of Neisseria meningititis

Meningitis (epidemic) meningis Meningococcemia -

366

an infection of the three layer membrane of the brain that attacks the central nervous system

Meningitis (epidemic) meningis

367

a secondary infection of meningitis. It is a fulminating blood poisoning. It is sudden, severe and overwhelming

Meningococcemia

368

Characteristics of Neisseria meningititis

Round shapedDiplococcusMeningococcusGram negative and appear red in the gram stain.Especially favors the nasopharynx.Endotoxin - a poisonous substance only released with the cell producing it is destroyed.

369

Portal of entry and exit Neisseria meningititis

respiratory tract

370

Mode of transmission Neisseria meningititis

direct (droplet) person-to-person transmission.

371

rod shaped bacteria of the small or large intestinal tract

Enteric bacilli

372

rod shaped bacteria - causes typhoid fever and infection of the intestinal tract.

Salmonella typhi

373

causes food infection. The food has the bacteria growing within the food itself. Found in foods of hogs, horses, fowl, turtles, oysters. Gram negative

Salmonellosis

374

Characteristic of Salmonella enteriditis

Rod shaped Gram negative and appears red. Not (Never) part of the normal flora.

375

Portal of entry of Salmonella enteriditis

digestive tract

376

Portal of exit of Salmonella enteriditis

feces

377

Mode of transmission of Salmonella enteriditis

indirect - food, milk, water or indirectly animal - cockroaches, fly’s (mechanical vectors)

378

rod shaped bacteria that causes bacillary dysentery. Gram negative

Shigella species

379

A coliform, bacteria, which causes green discoloration associated with decomposition. Rod shaped. Gram negative

E (Escherichia) coli

380

Medically during life E coli causes this - an inflammation of the small intestine

Enteritis

381

10% and more severe form of lobar pneumonia plus urinary infection tract. Rod shaped. Gram negative

Klebsiella pneumoniae

382

causes secondary infections in burn victims, most motile (movement) of bacilli. Bacteria. rod shaped. Long whip like flagella on all sides. The gram stain (red) negative.

Proteus species

383

(look like a comma) causes Asiatic cholera. Enterotoxin – a poisonous substance released which causes water loss.

Vibrio cholerae

384

Gram positive, (blue), rod shaped bacteria. They grow in the absence of oxygen

anaerobes

385

name the 7 bacteria discussed in the enteric bacilli group

Salmonella typhi Salmonella enteriditis Shigella species E (Escherichia) coli -Klebsiella pheumoniaeProteus speciesVibrio cholerae

386

name the 5 bacteria in the round shaped pyogenic cocci group

Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae Neisseria gonorrheaNeisseria meningititis

387

name the bacteria in the rod shaped anaerobe group

Clostridium tetaniClostridium bolulinum Clostridium perfringens (welchii) Clostridium difficileBacteroides species

388

Clostridium tetani

A. Pathogenicity 1. Tetanus (lock jaw) continuous muscle contraction - can form endospores.B. Characteristic 1. Produces endospores only under adverse conditions and grow at one end. 2. Exotoxin - neurotoxin - a poisonous substance with an affinity for the nervous system of the muscles of mastication. 3. Causes continuous muscle spasms. 4. Certain amount of necrotic (dead) tissue must be present. 5. Infectious, not communicable. C. Portal of entry - skin. D. Mode of transmission - indirect (soil) no person-to-person transmission

389

causes botulism - Most lethal form of food intoxication (poison) 1 millionth of a gram is the lethal dose to man. 1/2 lb. would kill the world. Prove to develop in home canning especially alkaline vegetables (beans and corn) fortunately heat liable, even though it produces endospores

Clostridium botulinum

390

has the ability to cause three infections in humans.

Clostridium perfringens (welchii)

391

Pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens (welchii)

tissue gasgas gangrenefood intoxication.

392

an infection that only develops after death (post mortem). Most common areas where it will will appear is usually in the extremities.

tissue gas

393

an infection that only develops before death (antemortem).

gas gangrene

394

a minor infection that is a release of poisonous substance

food intoxication

395

Characteristics that influence virulence of organism Clostridium perfringens

Forms endospores- enzymes ferment glucoseExotoxin - enterotoxin in food intoxication.Releases enzymes which eat fibrous protein, thus facilitating the rate of the spreading of the infection - fast spreading.Skin slip and crepitation (cracky, spongy feeling) associated with its infection.Ferments glucose, thus forming gas, which causes the cracky, spongy feeling.Normal flora of the intestinal tract.

396

Portal of entry of Clostridium perfringens

digestive tract for food poisoning otherwise the skin.

397

Mode of transmission Clostridium perfringens

indirect (soil in wounds) or fomites (trocars).

398

If person has ________ in life, be suspicious of _____ ______ at death.

gangrenetissue gas

399

nosocomial infection (Staph infections)Mode of transmission-Fecal oral route

Clostridium difficile

400

causes anaerobic lung absesses and multiple infections. Only one that doesn’t tell you from its name that it will form endospores

Bacteroides species

401

Causes food poisoning in man

Staphylococcus aureus

402

Tells you from species name that it will produce pus

Streptococcus pyogenes

403

Grows in pairs

Streptococcus pheumoniaeNeisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidis

404

Cause middle ear infection

Streptococcus pneumoniae

405

the two bacteria that could cause meningitis

Streptococcus pneumoniaeNeisseria meningitidis

406

Round shaped and produce pus

Staphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus pneumoniae

407

Only one that forms endotoxins

Neisseria meningitidis