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Flashcards in OSHA.. Deck (136):
1

the toxic effects resulting from a SINGLE DOSE or SHORT EXPOSURE to a substance

ACUTE TOXICITY

2

a chemical that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and found to be a CARCINOGEN or POTENTIAL CARCINOGEN; or is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (latest edition); or is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde)

CHRONIC TOXICITY

3

liquids having a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees (100F)

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID

4

a substance that causes visible destruction or permanent changes in human skin tissue at the site of contact (bleach and formaldehyde)

CORROSIVE

5

a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock (nitroglycerine)

EXPLOSIVE

6

4 types of Flammables

Aerosols-hairsprayGas-acetyleneLiquid-acetone/gasSolid-phosphorous

7

a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. Also includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic, or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, nerurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

HEALTH HAZARDS

8

a chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact (formaldehyde)

IRRITANT

9

dose required to produce the death in 50% of the exposed species within a specified time.

LD50 lethal dose 50

10

these are dangerous fire explosion risk (benzoyl peroxide)

ORGANIC PEROXIDE

11

chemicals that support combustion (bleach)

OXIDIZER

12

a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive

PHYSICAL HAZARDS

13

material that will ignite spontaneously in air at 130 degrees F or below (calcium or titanium powder)

PYROPHORIC

14

a chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical (formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde)

SENSITIZER

15

a relative property of a chemical agent and refers to a harmful effect on some biologic mechanism and the conditions under which this effect occurs

TOXICITY

16

materials that self-react under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature (hydrogen cyanide)

UNSTABLE

17

materials that can react with water to form gas, either flammable or toxic (halogen gases and sulfur dioxide)

WATER-REACTIVE

18

the following is a target organ categorization of effects which may occur, including examples of signs and symptoms and chemicals which have been found to cause such effects. These examples are presented to illustrate the range and diversity of effects and hazards found in the workplace, and the broad scope employers must consider in this area, but are not intended to be all-inclusive.

TARGET ORGAN EFFECTS

19

chemicals which produce liver damageex: jaundice, liver enlargementchemicals: carbon tetrachloride

HEPATOTOXINS

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chemicals which produce kidney damageex: edemachemicals: halogenated hydrocarbons

NEPHROTOXINS

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chemicals which produce their primary toxic effects on the nervous systemex: narcosis, behavioral changeschemicals: mercury

NEUROTOXINS

22

decrease hemoglobin function, deprive the body tissues of oxygenex: loss of consciousnesschemicals: carbon monoxide

HEMATO-POIETIC SYSTEM

23

agents which damage the lung.ex: cough, tightness in chest, shortness of breathchemicals: silica, asbestos

PULMONARYTOXINS

24

chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetusesex: birth defects, sterilitychemicals: lead, DBCP

REPRODUCTIVE TOXINS

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chemicals which affect the dermal layer of the body ex: defatting of the skin, rashes, irritationchemicals: ketones

CUTANEOUS HAZARDS

26

chemicals which affect the eye or visual capacityex: conjunctivitis, corneal damagechemicals: organic solvents, acids

EYE HAZARDS

27

4 AREAS OSHA DIRECTLY IMPACTS FUNERAL SERVICES:

1. OSHA act of 1970 or General Rule2. Hazardous Communication Standard3. Formaldehyde Standard4. Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

28

OSHA act of 1970

• Safe and healthful working conditions

29

• Ensure hazards of all chemicals are evaluated, and the information concerning their hazards is transmitted to all employers and employees by means of comprehensive haz comm. Program to include:• Container labeling• Forms of warning• MSDS - Material safe

HAZ COM STANDARD – “THE RIGHT TO KNOW LAW”

30

EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES

• Written training program• Written haz comm Program• Chemicals meet OSHA standards• Labels updated within 3 months

31

• All labeled• All have MSDS, in binder, alpha order, readily available• Identify / warning with words, pictures or symbols• Name, address, phone number• If transferred to new bottle – new label• Identify chemical with words, pictures or symbols• In English, can have other second language, but English first• Not removed, if removed – replace

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LABELING

32

• Every MSDS sheet should:

• Be readily available• Kept up to date• One for every chemical except consumer products• Be in English• In alphabetical order• In binder, in the room of chemical use

33

EMPLOYEE TRAINING

Must be written, supervised and include:• Who does MSDS• Where the MSDS is located• List of Hazards• Method to inform• What to do if no MSDS• Stored for 30 years• Train at time of Hire and, if new duty, if new equipment, if new hazard• Information on all hazardous chemicals• Requirements under hazardous communication standards• Any questions from trainee’s

34

• Manufactures name and address• Emergency number• Hazardous rating• Chemical name & trade name• Formula

Product ID

35

• May include exposure limits and /or• Precautionary measures

Hazardous Ingredients

36

• Appearance• Vapor density• Pressure• Odor• Gravity• Boiling Point• Evaporation rate• Percent volatile• Solubility

Physical Data

37

• Flashpoint• Flammable limits• Fire extinguisher required• Specific fire procedures and hazards

Fire & Explosion Data

38

• Stability• Conditions and materials to avoid

Reactivity Data

39

• Effects of overexposure for example:• Headaches, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing & drowsiness• Entrance to body (ingestion, eyes, skin & inhalation)

Health Hazard Data

40

• Spill procedures• Waste disposal methods

Safe Handling and Use

41

• Protection required for safe handling or chemicals for example:• Respirator, ventilation, eye protection, protective gloves, clothes, etc.

Special Protection Information

42

• Handling and storage• Temperature• Humidity• Refrigeration• Sunlight• Special containers

Special Precautions

43

• Cancer causing• Special container• Check for leaks• Container residue

Additional Information

44

4 areas OSHA directly impacts funeral services

1. OSHA act of 1970/General Rule2. Haz Comm standard3. Formaldehyde Standard4. Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

45

Applies to ALL occupational exposure to blood or OPIMStates a written exposure control plan must be implemented by the employer to eliminate or otherwise minimize employee exposure

BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN STANDARD

46

pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and cause disease in humans.ex: HIV, HBV, Malaria, Syphillis

BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN

47

other potential infectious material

OPIM

48

act of disinfecting or preserving a human dead body, by chemical substances.Disinfect or preserve a dead body tissues or structures.

EMBALMING

49

Written Exposure Control Plan MUST contain

1. Exposure termination2. Method of implementation for compliance3. Documentation of methods/procedures4. Documentation of annual updates5. Documentation that employer sought employee input6. All documents MUST include dates of consideration

50

An employee must survey work site by job classification to determine employee exposure

Exposure termination

51

Hep-B vaccine, haz comm, record keeping, & evaluation procedures regarding exposure.

Method of implementation for compliance

52

procedures that reduce risk of exposure

Documentation of methods/procedures

53

used to improve safety thereby eliminating exposure or minimizing it

Documentation of annual updates

54

documentation that employer has sought...

employee input (non management) to improve safety and minimizing exposure via safer engineering & work practice controls.

55

exposure to bloodborne pathogens can result in...

illness or death

56

bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted through...

blood and blood products

57

Types of OPIM

* Semen* Cerebrospinal fluid* Pleural fluid (lungs)* Pericardial fluid (heart)* Vaginal secretions* Synovial fluid (joints, elbows, shoulders)* Peritoneal fluid (abdominal)* Amniotic fluid*any other body fluid or secretion that contains blood

58

one must ASSUME that all unknown/body fluids are...

a potential hazard

59

the most important thing a person can do to protect themselves against exposure is to...

follow the Universal Precautions

60

set of guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control for safely handling remains.

Universal Precautions

61

CDC

Centers for Disease Control

62

Universal Precautions are based on the assumption that...

ALL remains could be infected with bloodborne pathogens

63

Proper use of _______ is an essential part of observing Universal Precautions

PPE

64

PPE

Personal Protective Equiment

65

PPE must be furnished and paid for by_______ when it is ______________

EmployerRequired

66

__________ develops policy guidelines for PPE, but __________ do/does have input

EmployerEmployees

67

Waterproof gown that protects skin of arms and body with long sleeves

Impervious gown

68

Common Disposable PPE

GlovesShoe coversHead coverBarrier maskProtective eyewearNon-fogging gogglesFace shieldAutopsy glovesImpervious gown

69

PPE/materials used for removals

Gown GlovesEye protectionBarrier maskDisinfectant spray bottlePlastic bag

70

Every removal vehicle should contain _____ complete kits

2

71

Every complete kit should contain....

Sheet for covering remainslight plastic pouch (body bag)extra box of disposable glovessupply of alcohol towelettes or foam

72

Bloodborne pathogens can survive for at least_______ in _________ on surfaces like tabletops, countertops, & sinks.

One weekDried blood

73

Use what combination of what to clean & decontaminate?

1 to 10 part solution of bleach & water

74

All equipment must be cleaned and decontaminated after each contact with_______________

blood or other potentially infectious materials

75

After each work shift you must clean and decontaminate...

countertopsreusable bucketsembalming machines & instrumentsembalming tables floors and walls

76

If exposed to body fluids by a puncture incident you must do what first...

IMMEDIATELY encourage bleeding

77

Steps (in order) on what to do if exposed to body fluids through a puncture incident...

immediately encourage bleedingwash area with antisepticnotify supervisor immediately after sanitizing

78

If exposed to body fluids through a splash onto NON-INTACT skin, you should...

wash affected area IMMEDIATELY w/soap & warm running water.

79

If exposed to body fluids through a splash onto THE EYES, you should

flush with cold water for 15 minutes at the eyewash station, holding the eyelids open

80

If exposed to body fluids through a splash into THE MOUTH, you should

rinse with water, spitting the water out several times

81

If exposed to body fluids through a splash in THE NOSE, you should

irrigate the nasal passages w/cool to warm water to the extent possible

82

In both a Puncture Incident & a Splash Incident, when should you report it to the supervisor?

IMMEDIATELY after sanitizing the affected area

83

If exposed to body fluids, the supervisor will...

arrange for a confidential medical exam & a follow up by a healthcare professional

84

A sample of your blood________ be taken at the healthcare professional

WILL

85

Physician may recommend__________ after contact with body fluids

treatment & provide a written opinion

86

What form should be filled out after exposure to body fluids?

OSHA form 200

87

The ___________ is responsible to pay for an exam, but the ____________ can _________ the exam. If so, a _________ must be signed.

EmployerEmployeeDenyWaiver

88

Causes acute inflammation of the liver.Can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancerSpread by blood, blood products, & other fluidsCan be serious or fatalCAN NOT BE CURED

Hepatitis-B

89

all control measures that isolate or remove a hazard from the workplace

engineering controls

90

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

91

presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface

contaminated

92

laundry that has been soiled with blood other OPIM or may contain contaminated sharps

contaminated laundry

93

any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin

contaminated sharps

94

use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles

decontaminatioin

95

a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin or parenteral contact with blood

exposure incident

96

a facility providing adequate supply of running water, soap, and single use towels or hot air drying machines

hand washing facilities

97

reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that may result from the performance of an employee's duties

Occupational exposure

98

peritoneal fluid

abdomen

99

plural fluid

lungs

100

pericardial fluid

heart

101

synovial fluid

joints

102

regulated waste is any of the following

1. liquid or semi-liquid blood or OPIM2. contaminated items releasing blood or OPIM when pressed3. items caked with dried blood or OPIM & capable or releasing when handled4. contaminated Sharps5. pathological & microbiological wastes containing blood or OPIM

103

everyone at a funeral home should be trained in...

Exposure Control & Proper PPE

104

Written Exposure Plan must be accessible to ALL employees and made available...

within 15 days of employees request or OSHA & NIOSH

105

Written Exposure Plan must be updated...

1. annually & whenever a new procedure has been implemented.2. When employee changes positions3. When updates to technology occurs

106

eyewash station must...

1. be unobstructed2. a one step operation3. withing 25 ft of work area4. provide cold water for 15 continuous minutes

107

emergency shower must be...

1. within 25 ft of work space2. clear and unobstructed3. cold water only

108

4 main types of safety signs

1. Danger signs2. Caution signs3. Safety instructions signs4. Labels on containers & equipment

109

this sign indicates immediate danger & special precautions

danger sign

110

this sign warns against potential hazards & unsafe practices

caution sign

111

sign for general instructions and suggestions

safety instructions signs

112

these two forms MUST be posted in the prep room

Cleaning & decontamination policyDaily cleaning schedule

113

signal words Danger & Caution must be...

1. Readable at 5 feet or greater2. Affixed with adhesive3. Placed as close as possible to hazard source4. Messages in works, pictures, or both5. Recognizable meaning to personnel

114

color of a biohazard label

florescent orange or orange-red with lettering in contrasting color

115

a biohazard label must be placed as close as possible or attached to...

1. doors or coolers containing remains2. containers of blood/infectious materials3. viscera buckets4. sharps containers5. embalming machines

116

prohibited activities in the prep room

1. eating2. drinking3. smoking4. applying cosmetics or lip balm5. handling contact lenses6. using hand cream after hand washing

117

The preparation room...

1. is a restricted area2. door must be marked with proper signage3. only allow authorized personnel4. have exhaust fans on HIGH when embalming

118

Inoculation Program is...

voluntary

119

HBV is offered within...

10 days of job assignment and at no cost

120

the HBV does not offer...

perfect protection but is considered the best prevention

121

the HBV only protects from...

Hepatitis-B

122

the HBV is administered...

in 3 parts over 6 months

123

all ____ injections of HBV are necessary to confirm_______

3immunity to the virus

124

if an employee initially declined HBV and later decides to take it, it is....

still offered at no cost

125

you should not take HBV if...

1. hypersensitive to compound of vaccine2. have active infection3. have heart or lung disease4. pregnant

126

employees at risk of Hep-B

1. embalmers and apprentice embalmers2. removal personnel3. prep room housekeepers4. hair stylist/cosmetologist5. funeral directors and other staff6. cemetery workers involved w/exhumation7. crematory workers

127

OSHA requires this in respect to PPE

that the employer must REQUIRE that the employee utilize PPE that is provided

128

Hep-B TRAINING records must be kept...

3 years from date of training

129

Hep-b training is required at...

1. time of hire or assignment in risk category2. at least once a year after initial training or when change in task occurs

130

employees at risk of Hep-B must attend...

an orientation program regarding HEP-B & risks...along with benefits of vaccine

131

employer must maintain accurate and confidential records for...

every employee with occupational exposure

132

employee medical record must contain

1. name & ss#2. copy of Hep-B vaccine status w/dates3. copy of all exams/testing results-followup procedures4. copy of health care professional's post-exposure written opinion

133

MEDICAL records relating to BBP standard must be maintained for...

the duration of employment PLUS 30 years

134

if employer is no longer in business & no successor employer follows, then the employer must...

notify OSHA 3 months prior to record disposal

135

when disposing of medical records, OSHA may...

require that the records or a copy of records be sent to them within a 3 month period

136

DECONTAMINATION after a removal

1. bag NEVER placed in regular trash2. PPE placed in plastic bag & disposed of by law3. vehicle decontaminated4. cot decontaminated5. bleach/water solution