Flashcards in OSHA.. Deck (136):
the toxic effects resulting from a SINGLE DOSE or SHORT EXPOSURE to a substance
a chemical that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and found to be a CARCINOGEN or POTENTIAL CARCINOGEN; or is listed as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (latest edition); or is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde)
liquids having a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees (100F)
a substance that causes visible destruction or permanent changes in human skin tissue at the site of contact (bleach and formaldehyde)
a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock (nitroglycerine)
4 types of Flammables
a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. Also includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic, or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, nerurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.
a chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact (formaldehyde)
dose required to produce the death in 50% of the exposed species within a specified time.
LD50 lethal dose 50
these are dangerous fire explosion risk (benzoyl peroxide)
chemicals that support combustion (bleach)
a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive
material that will ignite spontaneously in air at 130 degrees F or below (calcium or titanium powder)
a chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical (formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde)
a relative property of a chemical agent and refers to a harmful effect on some biologic mechanism and the conditions under which this effect occurs
materials that self-react under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature (hydrogen cyanide)
materials that can react with water to form gas, either flammable or toxic (halogen gases and sulfur dioxide)
the following is a target organ categorization of effects which may occur, including examples of signs and symptoms and chemicals which have been found to cause such effects. These examples are presented to illustrate the range and diversity of effects and hazards found in the workplace, and the broad scope employers must consider in this area, but are not intended to be all-inclusive.
TARGET ORGAN EFFECTS
chemicals which produce liver damageex: jaundice, liver enlargementchemicals: carbon tetrachloride
chemicals which produce kidney damageex: edemachemicals: halogenated hydrocarbons
chemicals which produce their primary toxic effects on the nervous systemex: narcosis, behavioral changeschemicals: mercury
decrease hemoglobin function, deprive the body tissues of oxygenex: loss of consciousnesschemicals: carbon monoxide
agents which damage the lung.ex: cough, tightness in chest, shortness of breathchemicals: silica, asbestos
chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetusesex: birth defects, sterilitychemicals: lead, DBCP
chemicals which affect the dermal layer of the body ex: defatting of the skin, rashes, irritationchemicals: ketones
chemicals which affect the eye or visual capacityex: conjunctivitis, corneal damagechemicals: organic solvents, acids
4 AREAS OSHA DIRECTLY IMPACTS FUNERAL SERVICES:
1. OSHA act of 1970 or General Rule2. Hazardous Communication Standard3. Formaldehyde Standard4. Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
OSHA act of 1970
• Safe and healthful working conditions
• Ensure hazards of all chemicals are evaluated, and the information concerning their hazards is transmitted to all employers and employees by means of comprehensive haz comm. Program to include:• Container labeling• Forms of warning• MSDS - Material safe
HAZ COM STANDARD – “THE RIGHT TO KNOW LAW”
• Written training program• Written haz comm Program• Chemicals meet OSHA standards• Labels updated within 3 months
• All labeled• All have MSDS, in binder, alpha order, readily available• Identify / warning with words, pictures or symbols• Name, address, phone number• If transferred to new bottle – new label• Identify chemical with words, pictures or symbols• In English, can have other second language, but English first• Not removed, if removed – replace
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LABELING
• Every MSDS sheet should:
• Be readily available• Kept up to date• One for every chemical except consumer products• Be in English• In alphabetical order• In binder, in the room of chemical use
Must be written, supervised and include:• Who does MSDS• Where the MSDS is located• List of Hazards• Method to inform• What to do if no MSDS• Stored for 30 years• Train at time of Hire and, if new duty, if new equipment, if new hazard• Information on all hazardous chemicals• Requirements under hazardous communication standards• Any questions from trainee’s
• Manufactures name and address• Emergency number• Hazardous rating• Chemical name & trade name• Formula
• May include exposure limits and /or• Precautionary measures
• Appearance• Vapor density• Pressure• Odor• Gravity• Boiling Point• Evaporation rate• Percent volatile• Solubility
• Flashpoint• Flammable limits• Fire extinguisher required• Specific fire procedures and hazards
Fire & Explosion Data
• Stability• Conditions and materials to avoid
• Effects of overexposure for example:• Headaches, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing & drowsiness• Entrance to body (ingestion, eyes, skin & inhalation)
Health Hazard Data
• Spill procedures• Waste disposal methods
Safe Handling and Use
• Protection required for safe handling or chemicals for example:• Respirator, ventilation, eye protection, protective gloves, clothes, etc.
Special Protection Information
• Handling and storage• Temperature• Humidity• Refrigeration• Sunlight• Special containers
• Cancer causing• Special container• Check for leaks• Container residue
4 areas OSHA directly impacts funeral services
1. OSHA act of 1970/General Rule2. Haz Comm standard3. Formaldehyde Standard4. Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
Applies to ALL occupational exposure to blood or OPIMStates a written exposure control plan must be implemented by the employer to eliminate or otherwise minimize employee exposure
BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN STANDARD
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and cause disease in humans.ex: HIV, HBV, Malaria, Syphillis
other potential infectious material
act of disinfecting or preserving a human dead body, by chemical substances.Disinfect or preserve a dead body tissues or structures.
Written Exposure Control Plan MUST contain
1. Exposure termination2. Method of implementation for compliance3. Documentation of methods/procedures4. Documentation of annual updates5. Documentation that employer sought employee input6. All documents MUST include dates of consideration
An employee must survey work site by job classification to determine employee exposure
Hep-B vaccine, haz comm, record keeping, & evaluation procedures regarding exposure.
Method of implementation for compliance
procedures that reduce risk of exposure
Documentation of methods/procedures
used to improve safety thereby eliminating exposure or minimizing it
Documentation of annual updates
documentation that employer has sought...
employee input (non management) to improve safety and minimizing exposure via safer engineering & work practice controls.
exposure to bloodborne pathogens can result in...
illness or death
bloodborne pathogens can be transmitted through...
blood and blood products
Types of OPIM
* Semen* Cerebrospinal fluid* Pleural fluid (lungs)* Pericardial fluid (heart)* Vaginal secretions* Synovial fluid (joints, elbows, shoulders)* Peritoneal fluid (abdominal)* Amniotic fluid*any other body fluid or secretion that contains blood
one must ASSUME that all unknown/body fluids are...
a potential hazard
the most important thing a person can do to protect themselves against exposure is to...
follow the Universal Precautions
set of guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control for safely handling remains.
Centers for Disease Control
Universal Precautions are based on the assumption that...
ALL remains could be infected with bloodborne pathogens
Proper use of _______ is an essential part of observing Universal Precautions
Personal Protective Equiment
PPE must be furnished and paid for by_______ when it is ______________
__________ develops policy guidelines for PPE, but __________ do/does have input
Waterproof gown that protects skin of arms and body with long sleeves
Common Disposable PPE
GlovesShoe coversHead coverBarrier maskProtective eyewearNon-fogging gogglesFace shieldAutopsy glovesImpervious gown
PPE/materials used for removals
Gown GlovesEye protectionBarrier maskDisinfectant spray bottlePlastic bag
Every removal vehicle should contain _____ complete kits
Every complete kit should contain....
Sheet for covering remainslight plastic pouch (body bag)extra box of disposable glovessupply of alcohol towelettes or foam
Bloodborne pathogens can survive for at least_______ in _________ on surfaces like tabletops, countertops, & sinks.
One weekDried blood
Use what combination of what to clean & decontaminate?
1 to 10 part solution of bleach & water
All equipment must be cleaned and decontaminated after each contact with_______________
blood or other potentially infectious materials
After each work shift you must clean and decontaminate...
countertopsreusable bucketsembalming machines & instrumentsembalming tables floors and walls
If exposed to body fluids by a puncture incident you must do what first...
IMMEDIATELY encourage bleeding
Steps (in order) on what to do if exposed to body fluids through a puncture incident...
immediately encourage bleedingwash area with antisepticnotify supervisor immediately after sanitizing
If exposed to body fluids through a splash onto NON-INTACT skin, you should...
wash affected area IMMEDIATELY w/soap & warm running water.
If exposed to body fluids through a splash onto THE EYES, you should
flush with cold water for 15 minutes at the eyewash station, holding the eyelids open
If exposed to body fluids through a splash into THE MOUTH, you should
rinse with water, spitting the water out several times
If exposed to body fluids through a splash in THE NOSE, you should
irrigate the nasal passages w/cool to warm water to the extent possible
In both a Puncture Incident & a Splash Incident, when should you report it to the supervisor?
IMMEDIATELY after sanitizing the affected area
If exposed to body fluids, the supervisor will...
arrange for a confidential medical exam & a follow up by a healthcare professional
A sample of your blood________ be taken at the healthcare professional
Physician may recommend__________ after contact with body fluids
treatment & provide a written opinion
What form should be filled out after exposure to body fluids?
OSHA form 200
The ___________ is responsible to pay for an exam, but the ____________ can _________ the exam. If so, a _________ must be signed.
Causes acute inflammation of the liver.Can lead to cirrhosis or liver cancerSpread by blood, blood products, & other fluidsCan be serious or fatalCAN NOT BE CURED
all control measures that isolate or remove a hazard from the workplace
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface
laundry that has been soiled with blood other OPIM or may contain contaminated sharps
any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin
use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles
a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin or parenteral contact with blood
a facility providing adequate supply of running water, soap, and single use towels or hot air drying machines
hand washing facilities
reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
regulated waste is any of the following
1. liquid or semi-liquid blood or OPIM2. contaminated items releasing blood or OPIM when pressed3. items caked with dried blood or OPIM & capable or releasing when handled4. contaminated Sharps5. pathological & microbiological wastes containing blood or OPIM
everyone at a funeral home should be trained in...
Exposure Control & Proper PPE
Written Exposure Plan must be accessible to ALL employees and made available...
within 15 days of employees request or OSHA & NIOSH
Written Exposure Plan must be updated...
1. annually & whenever a new procedure has been implemented.2. When employee changes positions3. When updates to technology occurs
eyewash station must...
1. be unobstructed2. a one step operation3. withing 25 ft of work area4. provide cold water for 15 continuous minutes
emergency shower must be...
1. within 25 ft of work space2. clear and unobstructed3. cold water only
4 main types of safety signs
1. Danger signs2. Caution signs3. Safety instructions signs4. Labels on containers & equipment
this sign indicates immediate danger & special precautions
this sign warns against potential hazards & unsafe practices
sign for general instructions and suggestions
safety instructions signs
these two forms MUST be posted in the prep room
Cleaning & decontamination policyDaily cleaning schedule
signal words Danger & Caution must be...
1. Readable at 5 feet or greater2. Affixed with adhesive3. Placed as close as possible to hazard source4. Messages in works, pictures, or both5. Recognizable meaning to personnel
color of a biohazard label
florescent orange or orange-red with lettering in contrasting color
a biohazard label must be placed as close as possible or attached to...
1. doors or coolers containing remains2. containers of blood/infectious materials3. viscera buckets4. sharps containers5. embalming machines
prohibited activities in the prep room
1. eating2. drinking3. smoking4. applying cosmetics or lip balm5. handling contact lenses6. using hand cream after hand washing
The preparation room...
1. is a restricted area2. door must be marked with proper signage3. only allow authorized personnel4. have exhaust fans on HIGH when embalming
Inoculation Program is...
HBV is offered within...
10 days of job assignment and at no cost
the HBV does not offer...
perfect protection but is considered the best prevention
the HBV only protects from...
the HBV is administered...
in 3 parts over 6 months
all ____ injections of HBV are necessary to confirm_______
3immunity to the virus
if an employee initially declined HBV and later decides to take it, it is....
still offered at no cost
you should not take HBV if...
1. hypersensitive to compound of vaccine2. have active infection3. have heart or lung disease4. pregnant
employees at risk of Hep-B
1. embalmers and apprentice embalmers2. removal personnel3. prep room housekeepers4. hair stylist/cosmetologist5. funeral directors and other staff6. cemetery workers involved w/exhumation7. crematory workers
OSHA requires this in respect to PPE
that the employer must REQUIRE that the employee utilize PPE that is provided
Hep-B TRAINING records must be kept...
3 years from date of training
Hep-b training is required at...
1. time of hire or assignment in risk category2. at least once a year after initial training or when change in task occurs
employees at risk of Hep-B must attend...
an orientation program regarding HEP-B & risks...along with benefits of vaccine
employer must maintain accurate and confidential records for...
every employee with occupational exposure
employee medical record must contain
1. name & ss#2. copy of Hep-B vaccine status w/dates3. copy of all exams/testing results-followup procedures4. copy of health care professional's post-exposure written opinion
MEDICAL records relating to BBP standard must be maintained for...
the duration of employment PLUS 30 years
if employer is no longer in business & no successor employer follows, then the employer must...
notify OSHA 3 months prior to record disposal
when disposing of medical records, OSHA may...
require that the records or a copy of records be sent to them within a 3 month period