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Endocrine > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (38):
1

what are the 3 parts of the brain stem (top to bottom)?

mid brain
pons
medulla oblongata

2

thalmus+hypothalamus=?

diencephalon

3

what joins the hypothalmus to the pituitary?

infundibulum

4

where is the pituitary gland?

in pituitary fossa in sphenoid bone

5

what does the pituitary fossa lie in?

sella turica

6

what does the pituitary gland lie immediately inferior to?

optic chiasm

7

what forms the optic chiasm?

the right and left optic nerves

8

what is bitemporal hemianopia?

there is disrupted transmission of action potentials from nasal retina bilaterally

means patient loses ability to see structure in temporal side of visual field bilaterally

9

what are the 2 surgical approaches to reaching the pituitary?

transcranial ( under frontal lobe)

transspherical (via nasal cavity and sphenoid sinus)

10

what makes the roof of the nasal cavity?

cribiform plate of ethmoid bone

11

what are the paranasal sinuses?

air filled spaces within the bone surrounding nasal cavities

12

name the paranasal sinuses

frontal sinuses
maxillary sinuses
ethmoidal air spaces
sphenoid sinuses

13

what is the tentorium cerebelli/

tough sheet of dura matter that "tents" over cerebellum

14

what are the dural venous sinuses?

venous channels in dura matter that drain most of the blood from the cranial cavity into the internal jugular veins at the jugular foraminae

15

what happens if optic chiasm is injured?

bitemporal hemianopia

16

what happens if oculomotor nerve is injured?

problems with eye movements
dilated pupil

17

what happens if trochlear nerve is injured?

problems with specific aye movements

18

what happens if trigeminal nerve is injured?

difficulty chewing

sensory symptoms of face

19

what happens id abducent nerve is injured?

problems with specific eye movements

20

what happens id cavernous sinus is injured?

venous haemorrhage

21

what happens if internal carotid is injured?

catastrophic haemorrhage

22

what happens if dura matter is injured?

cerebrospinal fluid leak

23

what does the thyroid gland consist of?

2 lobes and isthmus

24

where do the lobes of the thyroid gland attach to?

lateral aspects of thyroid and cricoid cartilage

25

how many parathyroid glands are there?

4- R+L superior and inferior

26

what vertebral level do you find the thyroid at?

C7

27

what muscles are located immediately deep to the skin within the superficial fascia of the neck?

platysma muscles

28

what groups of muscles do the platysma muscles belong to?

muscles of facial expression

29

what nerve innervates the platysma muscles

facial nerve- (CN 7)

30

name the 4 fascial compartments of the neck

prevertebral
investing deep
2 carotid sheaths
pretracheal

31

what arteries supply the thyroid gland?

inferior and superior thyroid arteries

superior from external carotid

32

describe the venous drainage from the thyroid gland?

right and left superior, middle and inferior thyroid veins

33

what lymph nodes are around the thyroid gland? (4)

superior deep lymph nodes
inferior deep lymph nodes
pretracheal
paratracheal nodes

34

where does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve recur?

under arch of aorta

35

where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve recur?

under subclavian vein

36

where/how is a thyroidectomy incision made?

"collar " incision
just superior to clavicles and jugular notche

37

what does a unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury cause?

hoarseness
weakness of voice
weak cough

38

what does a biilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury cause?

aphonia- cant produce sound