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Flashcards in Urine Analysis Deck (28):
1

If bilirubin is in the urine what might this indicate?

Hepatic or biliary disease

2

If ketones are in urine what might this be an indicator of?

Diabetes
Starvation

3

What does specific gravity monitor?

It monitors the diluting/ concentrating power of the kidneys

4

What might low conc of specific gravity indicate?

Renal abnormality
Continuous fluid intake

5

What cam high conc of specific gravity mean?

Dehydration
Usually indicates good kidney ability

6

What does blood in urine indicate?

Serious renal or urological disease
UTI
Malignancy

7

When is urine pH lowest?

After overnight fast

8

When is urine pH highest ?

After meals

9

If urine Is strongly acidic , what might this mean?

Uncontrolled diabetes
Starvation
Dehydration

10

If you persistently have positive urinary protein , what might this indicate?

Renal disease
UTI
Hypertension
Congestive heart failure

11

Is urobilinogen normally in urine ?

Yes

12

What do increased levels of urobilinogen indicate?

Liver abnormalities
Excessive destruction of red blood cells e.g in haemolytic anaemia

13

What do you have if you have nitrites in your blood?

UTI

14

What type of bacteria convert nitrates into nitrites?

Gram negative bacteria

15

What do leucocytes in the urine suggest ?

UTI

Or inflammatory condition

16

If leucocytes are found in urine what other 3 tests should be noted?

Nitrite
Blood
Protein

17

Red pee

Haemoglobin
Myoglobin
After eating beet root

18

Smokey red pee

Intact red cells

19

Orange pee

Anthraquinones such has cascara and danthron used in laxatives

20

Pink pee

Phenolphthalein

21

Yellow pee

Bilirubin

22

Blue/green pee

Methylene blue ( in liver pills)

23

Brown pee

Lacking L-dopa

Homogentistic acid

24

What can make pee cloudy or hazy ?

Suspended particles

25

Best sample for glucose

Second voided

26

Best sample for protein and nitrite

First morning

27

What must you do before testing urine?

Allow to warm to room temperature

28

What could glucose in urine indicate?

Diabetes
Stress
Pregnancy
Cushings syndrome
Post general anaesthesia
Acute pancreatitis