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Flashcards in reproductive online modules Deck (27):
1

what 5 things should you ask about in a gynae history?

menstrual cycle
cervical smear
sexual history
any treatment/surgery
obstetric history

2

oligomenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism are key features of what?

polycystic ovaries

3

differential for infertility?

polycystic ovaries
pelvic inflammatory disease
premature ovarian failure
hyperprolactaemia
pregancy

4

most common cause of female infertility?

polycystic ovaries

5

to be diagnosed with PCOS you must have 2 out of what 3 things?

oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea

hyperandrogenism (acne, hairy )

polycystic ovaries on ultrasound

6

what is menarche

when you start your period

7

what triggers menarche?

GnRH which is released by hypothalamus

8

what does an ovarian follicle consist of?

an oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells and theca cells

9

what do theca cells produce?

androgens (which are then converted to oestrogens by granulosa cells via acromatase enzyme)

10

when is ovulation day?

12-14

11

what does LH cause theca cells to do?

produce androgens

12

what does FSH cause granulosa cells to do?

covert androgens to oestrogens

13

what does too much oestrogen inhibit?

FSH

14

what triggers ovulation

surge in LH

15

2 phases of menstrual cycle?

follicular phase
luteal phase

16

what does the remaining follicle turn into in the luteal phase?

corpus luteum

17

what hormone does the corpus luteum release?

progesterone

18

what happens to endometrium in the luteal phase?

thickness increases

19

what does high levels of progesterone do?

inhibit FSH and LH

20

if no fertilisation what happens to corpus luteum?

degenerate which eventually leads to bleeding (period time!)

21

why does increase in androgens make you hairy?

because increase in androgens =increase testosterone which gives you more hair (esp on your face)

22

most appropriate investigation for PCOS?

transvaginal ultrasounnd

23

is PCOS usually unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

24

how can you manage hyperandrogenism?

contraceptive pill alone or in combination with an anit androgen

25

what can cause premature ovarian failure?

idiopathic
Iatrogenic-surgery, CHEMO, radiation
genetic-turners
autoimmune

26

how can you treaat premature ovarian failure?

hormone replacement

27

why is there a risk of osteoporosis after menopause?

decrease in oestrogen