Flashcards in Diabetes emergencies Deck (17)
what is diabetic ketoacidosis?
a disordered metabolic state that usually occurs in the context of an absolute or relative insulin deficiency accompanied by an increase in counter regulatory hormones
name some things which can contribute to DKA?
illicit drug use
non adherence with treatment
newly diagnosed diabetes
what are the typical signs and symptoms of DKA?
name some ketone related signs and symptoms of DKA
breathless- Kaussmaul's breathing
at presentation is sodium high or low? (DKA)
at presentation is creatinine high or low?(DKA)
at presentation is lactate high or low(DKA)
how do you manage and treat DKA?
bicarbonate (only in severe cases)
what are the typical features of hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS)?
diabetes may be known
usually older patients
high refined CHO intake pre event
risk associations- stroke/MI, sepsis, glucocorticoids, thiazides
is sodium high or low on admission of HHS?
what usually has higher glucose levels-DKA or HHS?
what is normal lactate range?
what is the normal range of ion gap?
what is type A lactic acidosis associated with?
tissue hypoxaemia. e,g infarcted tissue in bowel ischaemia
what is type B lactic acidosis associated with?
what might this be?
stupor or coma if severe
raised ion gap