Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology IV Deck (25)
What cranial nerve is affected by an acoustic neuroma?
CN VIII (p.412)
What part of the peripheral nerve does the perineurium surround?
Fascicles of nerve fibers (p.412)
What layer of peripheral nerve must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb attachment?
What is the epineurium of a peripheral nerve?
Dense connective tissue that surrounds the entire nerve (including the fascicles and blood vessels) (p.412)
Name the five principle neurotransmitters.
NE, Dopamine, 5-HT, Ach, GABA (p.413)
In what two pathologic states do NE levels change and how do they change?
Increase in anxiety; Decrease in depression (p.413)
In what three pathologic states do Dopamine levels change and how do they change?
Increase in schizophrenia; Decrease in Parkinsons; Decrease in depression (p.413)
In what two pathologic states do 5-HT levels change and how do they change?
Decrease in anxiety; Decrease in depression (p.413)
What do Merkel's disks sense?
Pressure, deep static touch (e.g. shapes, edges), position sense (p.412)
What are the three layers of a peripheral nerve?
Endoneurium (inner layer); Perineurium (around inner layer); Epineurium (outer layer) (p.412)
What peripheral nerve layer surrounds single nerve fiber layers?
What peripheral nerve layer becomes inflammed in Guillain-Barr̩ syndrome?
Where are Merkel's disks found?
In hair follicles (p.412)
Name the seven principle functions of the hypothalamus.
1.) Thirst and water balance; 2.) Adenohypophysis control (regulates anterior pituitary); 3.) Neurophypophysis releases hormones produced in the hypothalamus; 4.) Hunger; 5.) Autonomic Regulation; 6.) Temperature regulation; 7.) Sexual urges (acronym: TAN HATS) (p.414)
What are the inputs to the hypothalamus?
OVLT (senses changes in osmolarity); Area postrema (responds to emetics). These areas are not protected by the BBB (p.414)
What area of the hypothalamus makes ADH?
The supraoptic nucleus (p.414)
What area of the hypothalamus makes oxytocin?
The paraventricular nucleus (p.414)
Where are ADH and oxytocin made and released?
Made by the hypothalamus; released by the posterior pituitary (p.414)
What is the function of the lateral area of the hypothalamus?
Hunger centre (p.414)
What happens when the lateral area of the hypothalamus is destroyed?
Anorexia, failure to thrive in infants (p.414)
What is the function of the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus?
What is the function of the anterior hypothalamus?
Cooling; parasympathetic system (p.414)
What is the function of posterior hypothalamus?
Heating; sympathetic system (p.414)
What is the function of suprachiasmatic nucleus?
Circadian rhythym (p.414)