Pharmacology I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology I Deck (24)
1

What is the general purpose of glaucoma drugs?

To decrease IOP via decreasing the amount of aqueous humor (p.449)

2

By what two mechanisms do glaucoma drugs typically reduce IOP?

Inhibiting aqueous humor synthesis or by increasing aqueous humor drainage (p.449)

3

Name the five drug classes used to treat glaucoma.

a-agonists, b-blockers, diuretics, cholinomimetics, prostaglandins (p.449)

4

Which two alpha agonists are most commonly used to treat glaucoma?

Epinephrine, Brimonidine (a2) (p.449)

5

How does epinephrine treat glaucoma?

By decreasing aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction (p.449)

6

How does brimonidine (a2) treat glaucoma?

By decreasing aqueous humor syntehsis (p.449)

7

What are the side effects of epinephrine in glaucoma treatment?

Mydriasis; do not use in closed angle glaucoma (p.449)

8

What are the side effects of brimonidine (a2)?

Blurry vision, ocular hyperemia, foreign body sensation, ocular allergic reactions, ocular puritis (p.449)

9

What beta blockers are used to treat glaucoma?

Timolol, betaxolol, caretolol (p.449)

10

How does beta blockers function to treat glaucoma?

By decreasing aqueous humor syntehsis (p.449)

11

What side effects occur with use of beta blockers in treatment of glaucoma?

No pupillary or vision changes (p.449)

12

What diuretic is used to treat glaucoma?

Acetazolamide (p.449)

13

How does acetazolamide function to treat glaucoma?

By decreasing aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase (p.449)

14

What side effects occur with use of acetazolamide in treatment of glaucoma?

No pupillary or vision changes (p.449)

15

What subclasses of cholinomimetics are used to treat glaucoma?

Direct and indirect cholinomimetics (p.449)

16

Which direct cholinomimetics are used to treat glaucoma?

Pilocarpine, carbachol (p.449)

17

Which indirect cholinomimetics are used to treat glaucoma?

Physostigmine, echothiopate (p.449)

18

How do direct and indirect cholinomimetics function to treat glaucoma?

By increasing outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork (p.449)

19

When is pilocarpine specifically used to treat glaucoma and why?

In emergencies as it si very effective at opening the meshwork into the canal of Schlemm (p.449)

20

What side effects occur with use of cholinomimetics in treatment of glaucoma?

Miosis and cyclospasm (contraction of ciliary muscle) (p.449)

21

What type of prostaglandin is used to treat glaucoma?

Latanoprost (PGF2a) (p.449)

22

What is the mechanism of action of Latanoprost (PGF2a) in treatment of glaucoma?

Increased outflow of aqueous humor (p.449)

23

What is the mechanism of action of opiod analgesics?

Opiod receptor agonists to modulate synaptic transmission- open K+ channels, close Ca2+ channels, decerase synaptic transmission. Inhibit release of Ach, NE, 5-HT, glutamate, substance P (p.449)

24

What is the mechanism of action of Butorphanol?

Mu opiod partial agonist and kappa opioid receptor agonist; produces analgesia (p.449)