Anatomy and Physiology XVI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology XVI Deck (25)
1

Where is the second synapse in the spinothalamic tract pathway?

VPL of the thalamus (p.428)

2

Where is the second synapse in the lateral corticospinal tract pathway?

Neuromuscularjunction (p.428)

3

Describe the location and path of the third order neuron in the DCML spinal pathway.

Sensory cortex (p.428)

4

Describe the location and path of the second order neuron in the spinothalamic tract pathway.

Sensory cortex (p.428)

5

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to weakness.

Weakness is present in both UMN and LMN lesions (p.428)

6

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to atrophy.

No atrophy in UMN lesions; atrophy in LMN lesions (p.428)

7

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to fasciculations.

No fasciculations in UMN lesions but present in LMN lesions (p.428)

8

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to reflexes.

Hyperreflexive in UMN lesions; hyporeflexive in LMN lesions (p.428)

9

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to tone.

Increased tone in UMN lesions; decreased tone in LMN lesions (p.428)

10

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to Babinski.

Positive babinski in UMN lesions; negative babinski in LMN lesions (p.428)

11

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to spastic paralysis.

Present in UMN lesions, not present in LMN lesions (p.428)

12

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to flaccid paralysis.

Absent in UMN lesions, present in LMN lesions (p.428)

13

Compare and contrast UMN lesions to LMN lesions with regards to clasp knife spasticity.

Present in UMN lesions, not present in LMN lesions (p.428)

14

Describe three clinical characteristics associated with LMN lesions.

Everything 'lowered' --> less muscle mass, decreased muscle tone, decreased reflexes, downgoing toes (p.428)

15

Describe three clinical characteristics associated with UMN lesions.

Everything 'up' --> increased tone, increased DTRs, upward pointing toes (p.428)

16

In what conditions are the anterior horns of the spinal cord exclusively affected?

Poliomyelitis and Werdnig-Hoffman disease (p.429)

17

What characteristics are associated with spinal cord lesions to the anterior horns?

LMN lesions only with flaccid paralysis (p.429)

18

What areas of the spinal tract are destroyed in MS?

Random and asymmetric lesions, mostly in the white matter of the cervical region (p.429)

19

What causes lesions of the spinal tract in MS?

Demyelination (p.429)

20

Name three characteristics of spinal cord lesions associated with MS.

Scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus (p.429)

21

What areas of the spinal cord are lesioned in ALS?

Anterior horns and lateral corticospinal tracts (p.429)

22

What sorts of deficits are seen in patients with ALS?

Combined UMN and LMN deficits with no sensory, cognitive, or oculomotor deficits; both UMN and LMN signs are present (p.429)

23

What genetic defect can be associated with ALS?

Superoxide dismutase 1 defect (p.429)

24

How does ALS commonly present?

Fasciculations with eventual atrophy; progressive and fatal (p.429)

25

What treatment has been modestly shown to increase survival in ALS patients?

Riluzole treatment (p.429)