Flashcards in Pathology IV Deck (25)
What is the treatment for cluster headaches?
Inhaled oxygen, sumatriptan (p.446)
Describe the symptoms/ pain associated with tension headaches.
Steady pain without photophobia or phonophobia. No aura (p.446)
Describe the symptoms/ pain associated with migraine headaches.
Pulsating pain with nausea, photophobia, or phonophobia. May be present with an aura. Caused by irritation of CN V, meninges, or blood vessels (release of substance P, CGRP, vasoactive peptides) (p.446)
What is the treatment for migraine headaches?
Abortive therapies (triptans); prophylactic treatments (propanolol, topiramate) (p.446)
Name five non traditional causes of headache.
SAH, meningitis, hydrocephalus, neoplasia, arteritis (p.446)
How are cluster headaches differentiated from trigeminal neuralgia?
Based on duration- TN pain lasts for typically less than a minute; cluster headache pain lasts usually greater than 15 minutes (p.446)
Describe the pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia.
Repetitive, shooting pain in the distribution of CN V that lasts typically for < 1 minute (p.446)
What are the two types of vertigo?
Peripheral (more common) and central vertigo (p.446)
What is the etiology of peripheral vertigo?
Inner ear etiology (e.g semicircular canal debris, vestibular nerve infection, Meniere's disease) (p.446)
What positional testing results indicate peripheral vertigo?
Positional testing. Positive test is delayed horizontal nystagmus (p.446)
Where do meningiomas most commonly occur?
In the convexities of hemispheres near to the surfaces of the brain and in the parasagittal region. They are extra axial (external to the brain parenchyma) and may have a dural attachment (tail) (p.447)
From where do meningiomas arise?
Arachnoid cells (p.447)
What is the prognosis for a patient with a meningioma?
Tumors are usually benign and resectable (p.447)
How does a patient with a meningioma most typically present?
Often asymptomatic or may present with seizures or focal signs (p.447)
What characterizes histology of mengioma tumors?
Spindle cells concentrically arranges in a whorled pattern with psammoma bodies (laminated calcificaitons) (p.447)
What is the third most common tupe of primary adult brain tumor?
Where are schwannomas typically located and what is their cellular origin?
Often localized to CN VIII (acoustic neuromas) and found at the cerebellopontine angle; of Schwann cell origin (p.447)
How are schwannomas usually treated?
Resection or sterotactic radiosurgery (p.447)
What type of staining is characteristically positive in schwannomas?
What type of schwannomas are often present in NF type II?
Bilateral acoustic schwannomas (p.447)
What are oligodendrogliomas?
Relatively rare, slow growing tumors that are most often located in the frontal lobes (p.447)
Describe the appearance of pattern of oligodendroglioma tumors.
Chicken-wire capillary pattern with 'fried-egg' cells (round nuclei with clear cytoplasm) that are often calcified (p.447)
What symptoms are typically caused by pituitary adenomas?
Bitemporal hemianopia (due to pressure on the optic chiasm), hyper- or hypopituitarism (p.447)
What is the most common form of pituitary adenoma?