Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology XIX Deck (25)
Describe the L1 dermatome.
At the inguinal ligament (p.431)
Describe the L4 dermatome.
Includes the kneecaps (p.431)
Describe the S2, S3, S4 dermatomes.
Responsible for erection and sensation of penile and anal zones (p.431)
What is the clinical significance of the T10 dermatome in terms of referred pain?
Early appendicitis pain referral (p.431)
Where is diaphragm and gallbladder pain referred?
To the right shoulder (p.431)
What nerve is responsible for transmitting referred pain from the gallbladder and the diaphragm.
The phrenic nerve (p.431)
What nerve root is tested by the biceps reflex?
C5 nerve root (C5, C6 nerves) (p.432)
How is Werdnig-Hoffman disease contracted?
Congenital condition. Autosomal recessive inheritance (p.430)
What causes Friedreich's ataxia?
An autosomal trinucleutide repeat disorder (GAA) in the gene encoding frataxin causes impairment in mitochondrial functioning (p.430)
Name seven symptoms associated with Friedrich's ataxia.
Staggering gait, frequent falling, nystagmus, dysarthria, pes cavus, hammer toes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p.430)
What typically is the cause of death in patients with Friedreich's ataxia?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p.430)
How does Friedreich's ataxia typically present?
In childhood with kyphoscoliosis (p.430)
What causes Brown-S̩quard syndrome?
Hemisection of the spinal cord (p.430)
What are the ipsilateral symptoms of Brown-S̩quard syndrome?
UMN signs below the level of the lesion (due to corticospinal tract damage); loss of tactile, vibration, proprioception sense below the level of the lesion (due to dorsal column damage); loss of all sensation at the level of the lesion; LMN signs (flaccid paralysis) at the level of the lesion (p.430)
What are the contralateral symptoms of Brown-S̩quard syndrome?
Pain and temperature loss below the level of the lesion fue to spinothalamic tract damage (p.430)
With Brown-S̩quard syndrome, where will the patient experience total loss of all sensation?
On the ipsilateral side of the lesion, at the spinal level of the lesion (p.430)
What symptoms are unique to Brown-S̩quard syndrome with a lesion above T1?
Horner's syndrome due to damage of the sympathetic ganglion (p.430)
What is Horner's syndrome?
Sympathectomy of the face (p.431)
What are the three clasic features of Horner's syndrome?
Ptosis, Anhidrosis, Miosis (p.431)
What is anhidrosis?
Absence of sweating; often causes flushing (p.431)
What are three possible causes of Horner's syndrome as caused by lesion of the spinal cord above T1?
Pancoast tumor, Brown-Sequard syndrome, late stage syringomyelia (p.431)
What is the function of the pineal gland?
Melatonin secretion, circadian rhythms (p.433)
What is the function of the superior colliculi?
Conjugate vertical gaze center (p.433)
What is the functino of the inferior colliculi?
Transmits auditory information (p.433)