Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology IX Deck (25)
What area of the brain is damaged in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
Bilateral lesions to the mamillary bodies (p.419)
What are the clinical manifestations of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
Confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia, memory loss (anterograde and retrograde amnesia), confabulation, personality changes (p.419)
What causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
Thiamine (B1) deficiency and excessive EtOH use (p.419)
How can Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome be precipitated?
By giving a B1 deficient patient glucose without also giving B1 (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the basal ganglia?
Resting tremor, chorea, athetosis (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the cerebellar hemispheres?
Intention tremor, limb ataxia, loss of balance (p.419)
On what side of the body do lesions to the cerebellum produce symptoms?
To the ipsilateral side of injury. Patients tend to fall towards the side of the lesion (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the cerebellar vermis?
Truncal ataxia, dysarthria (p.419)
What is the principle difference in symptoms between lesions to the cerebellar vermis vs to the cerebellar hemispheres?
Hemispheres causes lateral deficits (i.e. limbs); vermis affects the central body (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the subthalamic nucleus?
Contralateral hemiballismus (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the hippocampus?
Anterograde amnesia. Inability to make new memories (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the Paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF)?
Eyes look away from the side of the lesion (p.419)
What symptoms are associated with lesions to the frontal eye fields?
Eyes look towards the lesion (p.419)
What are the symptoms associated with Central pontine myelinolysis?
Acute paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, loss of consciousness (p.419)
What is the pathology associated with Central pontine myelinolysis?
Massive axonal demyelination in pontine white matter tracts (p.419)
What causes central pontine myelinolysis?
Iatrogenic- caused by overly rapid correction of sodium levels in patients with hyponatremia (p.419)
What can be seen on MRI in a patient with central pontine myelinolysis?
Abnormal increased signal in central pons in axial T2 weighted MRI with FLAIR (p.419)
What are the four most common types of aphasia?
Broca's, Wernicke's, Global, Conduction (p.420)
What is aphasia?
A higher order inability to speak due to a language deficit (p.420)
What is dysarthria?
A motor inability to speak; a movement deficit (p.420)
What is the difference between aphasia and dysarthria?
Aphasia is caused by a language deficit; dysarthria is caused by a movement deficit (p.420)
What is Broca's aphasia?
Nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehension (p.420)
Where is Broca's area?
In the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (p.420)
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
Fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension (p.420)