Anatomy and Physiology XI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology XI Deck (25)
1

What four arteries compose the posterior circulation of the brain?

ASA, PICA, AICA, PCA (p.422)

2

What three functional areas does the ASA supply?

Lateral corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, caudal medulla (CN XII) (p.422)

3

What symptoms are associated with an infarction of the ASA?

Contralateral hemiparesis of the lower limbs; decreased proprioception; ipsilateral hypoglossal dysfunction (tongue deviates ipsilaterally) (p.422)

4

What type of stroke is typically seen in infarction to the ASA?

Bilateral stroke (p.422)

5

What causes medial medullary syndrome?

Infarct of the paramedian branches of the ASA and vertebral arteries (p.422)

6

What functional area is supplied by PICA?

The lateral medulla (p.422)

7

What important structures of the lateral medulla are supplied by PICA?

Vestibular nuclei, lateral spinothalamic tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, sympathetic fibers, inferior cerebellar peduncle (p.422)

8

What symptoms are associated with an infarction of PICA?

Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus; decreased pain and temperature sensation to limbs and face; DYSPHAGIA,HOARSENESS, decreased gag reflex; ipsilateral Horner's syndrome; ataxia, dysmetria (p.422)

9

What is Lateral Medullary (Wallenberg's) Syndrome?

A PICA lesion causing nucleus ambiguus effects (p.422)

10

What artery is infarcted in Wallenberg's syndrome?

PICA (p.422)

11

What three important structures are supplied by AICA?

Lateral pons; Middle and Inferior cerebellar peduncles (p.422)

12

What important structures of the lateral pons are supplied by AICA?

Cranial nerve nuclei, vestibular nuclei, facial nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, cochlear nuclei, sympathetic fibers (p.422)

13

What symptoms are associated with an infarction of AICA?

Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus, PARALYSIS of face, decreased lacrimation, salivation, decreased taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue, decreased corneal reflex. Decreased pain and temperature sensation of the face; ipsilateral decrease in hearing; ipsilateral Horner's syndrome, ataxia, dysmetria (p.422)

14

What syndrome is caused by an infarct in AICA?

Lateral pontine syndrome (p.422)

15

Lesions of what artery cause facial nucleus effects?

AICA (p.422)

16

What is a common clinical finding in AICA infarct?

Facial droop (p.422)

17

What two important areas are affected by PICA infarct?

Occipital cortex; visual cortex (p.422)

18

What symptoms are associated with an infarction of the PCA?

Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing (p.422)

19

Name the two communicating arteries.

Anterior and posterior communicating arteries (p.422)

20

Which two sites are commonly associated with saccular (berry) aneurysms?

The Anterior and Posterior communicating arteries (p.422)

21

Lesion to the anterior communicating artery has what effect?

Impingement on cranial nerves (p.422)

22

What deficits are associated with lesion to the anterior communicating arteries?

Visual field defects (p.422)

23

What deficits are associated with lesion to the posterior communicating arteries?

CN III palsy (eye is down and out) with ptosis and pupil dilation (p.422)

24

What type of lesion commonly affects the anterior communicating arteries?

Aneurysms; typically not strokes (p.422)

25

What type of lesion commonly affects the posterior communicating arteries?

Aneurysms; typically not strokes (p.422)