Pharmacology II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology II Deck (25)
1

What is the mechanism of action of Tramadol?

Very weak opioid agonist that also inhibits serotonin and NE reuptake by working on multiple NTs (p.450)

2

Name eight opioid analgesics.

Morphine, fentanyl, codeine, heroin, methadone, meperidine, dextromethorphan, diphenoxylate (p.449)

3

At what opioid receptor does morphine act as an agonist?

Mu (p.449)

4

At what opioid receptor do enkephalins act as agonists?

Delta (p.449)

5

At what opioid receptor do dynorphins act as agonists?

Kappa (p.449)

6

Name five clinical uses of opoid analgesics.

Pain, cough suppression (dextromethorphan), diarrhea (loperamide, diphenoxylate), acute pulmonary edema, maintance programs of addicts (methadone) (p.449)

7

What is the clinical use of Butorphanol?

Severe pain (migraine, labour, etc) (p.449)

8

What is the clinical use of Tramadol?

Chronic pain (p.450)

9

What toxicites are associated with opiod analgesics?

Addiction, respiratory depression, constipation, miosis (pinpoint pupils), additive CNS depression with other drugs (p.449)

10

What toxicites are associated with Butorphanol?

Opiod withdrawal symptoms if the patient is also taking full opiod agonists (competition for opioid receptors); overdose not easily reversed with naloxone (p.449)

11

What toxicites are associated with Tramadol?

Similar to opoid toxicities; decreases seizure threshold (p.450)

12

Which opiod analgesic is used in cough suppression?

Dextromethorphan (p.449)

13

Which opiod analgesics are used in treatment of diarrhea?

Loperamide, diphenoxylate (p.449)

14

Which opiod analgesic is used in maintenance programs for addicts?

Methadone (p.449)

15

Tolerance to which opioid analgesic toxities can not be attained?

Miosis and constipation (p.449)

16

How is opiod analgesic toxicity treated?

Naloxone or naltrexone (opiod receptor antagonist) (p.449)

17

Name one advantage to using Butorphanol over opioid analgesics.

Butorphanol causes less respiratory depression than full opioid agonists (p.449)

18

Name eight drugs that can be used for both partial (focal) seizures and generalized seizures.

Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Gabapentin, Topiramate, Phenobarbital, Valproic acid, Levetiracetam (p.451)

19

Name two drugs that are only suitable for partial (focal) seizures.

Tigabine, Vagabatrin (p.451)

20

What types of seizures is Phenytoin used to treat?

Simple and complex partial seizures; tonic clonic seizures; status epilepticus (also a class Ib antiarrythmatic) (p.451)

21

In what seizure conditions is Phenytoin used as a first line agent?

Tonic-clonic seizures; prophylaxis against status epilepticus (p.451)

22

What types of seizures is Carbamazepine used to treat?

First line agent for simple and complex partial seizures; first line for tonic-clonic seizures (p.451)

23

What types of seizures is Lamotrigine used to treat?

Simple and complex partial seizures; tonic clonic seizures (p.451)

24

What types of seizures is Gabapentin used to treat?

Simple and complex partial seizures; tonic clonic seizures (p.451)

25

What types of seizures is Topiramate used to treat?

Simple and complex partial seizures; tonic clonic seizures (p.451)