Anatomy and Physiology XVII Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology XVII Deck (25)
1

What is the function of Riluzole treatment in treatment of ALS?

It decreases presynaptic glutamate release (p.429)

2

What regions of the spine are affected by complete occlusion of the anterior spinal artery?

Entire cord except for dorsal columns and lissauer's tract (p.429)

3

What anterior spinal artery territory is a watershed area?

Upper thoracic ASA territory (p.429)

4

What artery also supplies the ASA territory below approximately T8?

Artery of Adamkiewicz (p.429)

5

What areas of the spinal cord are affected by tabes dorsalis?

Degeneration (demyelination) of the dorsal columns and roots (p.429)

6

What is tabes dorsalis?

Demyelination of the dorsal columns/ roots caused by tertiary syphilis (p.429)

7

What symptoms are associated with tabes dorsalis?

Impaired sensation and proprioception and progressive sensory ataxia (inability to sense or feel the legs) (p.429)

8

Name three symptomatic associations of Tabes dorsalis?

Charcot's joints, shooting pain, Argyll Robertson pupils (p.429)

9

What are Argyll Robertson pupils?

Small bilateral pupils that further constrict to accommodation but not to light (p.429)

10

What two exam features will be demonstrated in a patient with taves dorsalis?

Absence of DTRs and positive Rhomberg (p.429)

11

What is syringomyelia?

When the syrinx expands to damage the anterior white commisure of the spinothalamic tract (2nd order neurons); can expand to affect other tracts (p.429)

12

What symptoms are associated with syringomyelia?

Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation (usually C8-T1) (p.429)

13

What condition may also cause syringomyelia?

Chiari I malformation (p.429)

14

What spinal cord segments are affected by vitamin B12 or vitamin E deficiency?

Dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tracts, and spinocerebellar tracts (p.429)

15

What is the pathophysiology of spinal cord damage in vitamin B12 or Vitamin E deficiency?

Subacute combined degeneration (p.429)

16

What neurological symptoms are associated with spinal cord degeneration in vitamin B12 or vitamin E deficiency?

Ataxic gait, paresthesia, impaired position and vibration sense (p.429)

17

What causes poliomyelitis?

Poliovirus is transmitted by fecal-oral route (p.430)

18

How is the polio virus spread in the body?

Replication of the virus is in the oropharynx and small intestine. Virus then spreads via the bloodstream to the CNS (p.430)

19

What areas of the spinal cord are affected by poliomyelitis?

Anterior horn of the spinal cord causes LMN death (p.430)

20

What symptoms are associated with poliomyelitis?

LMN signs- weakness, hypotonia, flaccid paralysis, atrophy, fasciculations, hyporeflexia, muscle atrophy (p.430)

21

What symptoms are associated with signs of acute poliomyelitis infection?

Malaise, headache, fever, nausea, etc. (p.430)

22

What CSF findings are associated with poliomyelitis?

CSF has elevated WBCs and slight protein elevation (with no change in glucose) (p.430)

23

From what types of samples can the poliomyelitis virus be recovered?

Stool samples or throat cultures (p.430)

24

What is Werdnig-Hoffman disease?

Congenital LMN degeneration of the anterior horns of the spinal cord (p.430)

25

What signs and symptoms characterize Werdnig- Hoffman disease?

Floppy baby with marked hypotonia and tongue fasciculations. Infantile type has a median age of death of about 7 months (p.430)