what should a succesful antiviral do?
1) interfere with a virus-specific function
2) interefere with a cellular function to stop viral replication
what can viruses do that may render them immune to antiviral drugs?
they develop resistance because they have high mutation rate
what is imiquimod?
an antiviral drug
what is resiquimod?
what viruses will imiquimod target?
2) molluscum contagiosum
what viruses will resiquimod target?
2) molluscum contagiosum
what is pegylated interferon-a?
what is pegylated interferon-a mode of action?
binds to IFN receptro and inhibits translation causing apoptosis of target
what viruses does pegylated interferon-a target?
HSV, HPV, Hep B, CMV, Hep C
what side effects does interferon-a have?
pleotropic systemic effects (fever, fatigue, headache)
what are the 2 types of attachment inhibitors?
1) neutralizing IgG antibodies
2) receptor antagonists
how do neutralizing IgG antibodies (a type of attachment inhibitor) work?
through passive immunization, IgG coats virion particles so that the VAP cannot bind to the host cell receptor
how do receptor antagonists work (a type of attachment inhibitor)?
sugar or peptide analogues of cell receptor or VAP
what is an example of a receptor antagonist drug?
when is it used?
what is the mode of action?
binds to CCR5, blocking interaction with gp120
Give 2 examples of penetration inhibitors
what will tromantadine inhibit?
what does enfuvirtide inhibit?
inhibits fusion of gp41 with host cell
give 2 examples of uncoating inhibitor drugs
what drugs are used against influenza A?
what will genome replication inhibitors do?
will prevent chain elongation or induce inactivating mutations
genome replication inhibitor drugs will target what?
1) RNA polymerase
2) DNA polymerase
3) Reverse transcriptase
what is a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor?
a genome replication inhibitor that acts as a nucleoside analogue (has modified nucleoside bases)
what is an example of a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor?
what disease can ribovarin be used?
what specific target will ribovirin inhibit?
what are nucleoside DNA polymerase inhibitors?
nucleoside analogues with modified sugar residues
what is characteristic about nucleoside DNA polymerase inhibitors?
they all end with -lovir
what is the mechanism of action of nucleoside DNA polymerase inhibitors?
they prevent dna chain elgongation
what are 2 nucleoside DNA polymerase inhibitors?
what causes the elongation inhibition when using acyclovir?
it is missing -OH on the sugar
what viruses are treated with acyclovir?
why will acyclovir not work with CMV?
CMV does not have thymidine kinase
why is ganciclovir used lightly?
it is toxic
used only for immunocompromised patients
what is characteristic about nucleoside transcriptase inhibitors?
they all end with -FOVIR or -UDINE
what is the mechanism of action of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
they prevent DNA chain elongation
what are 5 examples of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
when is tenofovir used?
when is adefovir used?