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Flashcards in DNA enveloped viruses Deck (87):
1

the herpes virus family is what type of nucleic acid?

double stranded DNA

2

what 3 characteristics determine the herpes family biology?

1) dsDNA

2) Icosahedral capsid

3) enveloped

3

all herpes viruses encode this protein first in order to replicate.

reverse transcriptase 

4

what kind of infections does herpes viruses (all) cause?

lytic, persistent and latent infections

5

what are the two ways the herpes virus family replicates during infection?

1) actively 

2) latent 

6

in an active infection, what causes the symptoms?

cell lysis and cell mediated immunity

7

what cell mediated immune response cell will lead to symptoms seen in active infection?

natural killer cells

8

active infection will cause what cellular changes in the infected cell?

syncytia and inclusion body formation

9

What herpes family viruses (3) will remain latent in neurons?

herpes simplex virus 1

herpes simplex virus 2

varicella

10

what herpes family viruses will remain latent in hematopoietic stem cells?

cytomegalovirus 

human herpes virus 6

11

what 2 herpes family viruses will remain latent in B cells?

1) epstein-bar virus

2) kaposi sarcoma

12

against what herpes family viruses do we have an inherent immunity? (antibodies against)

human herpes virus 6 and human herpes virus 7

13

how is herpes simple virus 1 spread?

through direct contact of fluid

mixing and matching of mucous membranes

14

how does varicella spread?

aerosol and direct contact with fluid

15

how does CMV spread?

aerosol

sexual contact

parental transmission

16

what is the biology of the herpes simplex virus?

it is an enveloped double stranded DNA virus

17

what protein does herpes simplex virus always have?

DNA polymerase

18

what cells will herpes simplex virus 1 target to remain latent?

trigeminal ganglia

19

what cells will herpes simplex virus 2 target?

sacral ganglia

20

what clinical presentation must be present to diagnose herpes simplex virus 1?

fever

painful vesicular lesions (cold sores)

herpetic keratitis

herpetic whitlow 

herpetic gladiatorum

21

how is the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus confirmed?

 histological finding- cowdry type A intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion 

syncytia

22

how do you treat herpes simplex virus?

acyclovir

23

what is the primary receptor and on what cell for the herpes simplex virus 1?

heparin is the receptor on mucosa-epithelial cells

24

what is the secondary effect of herpes simplex virus 1?

virus replicates in trigeminal nerve 

25

what cell does herpes simplex virus 2 attack during the active infection?

epithelial cells

26

where does herpes simplex virus 2 remain latent?

sacral ganglion

27

what triggers recurrent infection of herpes simplex 1 and 2?

reduced immunity 

28

what two components of immunity will help maintain herpes simplex 1 and 2 latent?

INF-alpha

Th 1 cells

29

what 3 immune cells help control herpes simplex virus during the active infection?

NK cells

Th 1 cells

CTL's

30

what will reduce the flare up of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2?

memory CTL's

31

what type of herpes will cause this? what is this called?

Q image thumb

herpes simplex virus 1

herpetic vesicular lesion 

32

what is herpes labialis?

its a cold sore in the mouth or lips that presents without fever 

33

what virus causes herpes pharyingitis?

herpes simplex

34

what is a rare complication of herpes simplex?

herpes meningo-encephalitis 

35

what risk does meningo-encephalitis have?

high risk of death

36

what will be seen in meningo-encephalitis?

temporal lobe destruction

37

how do you confirm meningo-encephalitis caused by herpes simplex?

erythrocytes in the CSF

38

what is herpetic keratitis caused by?

herpes simplex 1

39

what is very important about herpetic keratitis from herpes simplex 1?

it is the most common cause of infectious corneal blindness 

40

how many eyes will be affected by herpetic keratitis from herpes simplex 1?

1 eye

41

what is seen in herpetic keratitis by herpes simplex 1?

permanent scarring of cornea 

blindness

42

where will herpes simplex 2 lesions occur in the body?

will be seen genitally

43

what is this?

Q image thumb

herpes simplex 2

genital lesions

44

what is this?

Q image thumb

herpes simplex 2

genital lesions

45

what type of herpes simplex will neonates contract?

herpes simplex type 2

46

how will neonate contract herpes simplex type 2?

by being born vaginally with HSV 2 positive mom

47

what is this?

Q image thumb

herpetic whitlow

48

what is this?

Q image thumb

herpes gladiatorum 

49

where does herpetic whitlow occur?

in the finger

50

how does herpetic whitelow happen?

when someone has a cut and touches a person with herpes simples virus

51

where does herpes gladiatorum happen in the body?

around the body

52

who most often gets herpes gladiatorum caused by herpes simplex?

wrestlers or rugby players

53

herpes simplex can cause this is children

eczema herpeticum

54

when do kids acquire eczema herpeticum?

 

what causes it to spread?

when kids already have active eczema

 

the very eczema causes the spread

55

what cells does varicella target?

respiratory epithelial cells

56

57

what cells does varicella use to remain latent?

nerve cells

58

what cells does varicella use to spread throughout the body?

T cells

59

what cells does varicella use for lytic infection?

skin epithelial cells

60

what is the biology of varicella zoster?

enveloped double stranded DNA 

61

what protein does varicella zoster have?

DNA polymerase

62

how do you treat vericella zoster?

acyclovir

63

what cells does varicella zoster target?

epithelial cells

64

what cells does varicella zoster use to remain latent?

in nerves of dorsal ganglia

65

what prevention can be taken against varicella zoster?

live attenuated vaccine

66

how is a diagnosis of varicella zoster confirmed?

checking histologically for Cowdry Type A intranuclear inclusions

also syncytia

67

what is the clinical presentation of varicella zoster?

fever

respiratory symptoms with painful vesicular lesion

 

68

what is the primary type of infection that happens with varicella zoster?

chicken pox

69

how do you identify chicken pox?

it is asymptomatic pruritic rash

vesicular lesions from the trunk to the scalp (distinct)

70

what is the secondary type of infection that varicella zoster causes?

shingles

71

how do you identify shingles?

vesicular lesions in the form of a belt that are extremely painful

72

chicken pox will occur on children or adults?

children

73

shingles will occur on children or adults?

adults

74

how does chicken pox spread?

how infectious is it?

through aerosol or direct contact

highly infectious

75

why does shingles occur?

it is reactivation of the varicella virus  due to immunosuppresion

76

77

where does shingles rash occur?

in the trunk

78

why is shingles rash painful?

due to nerve damage

79

what cell does varicella use to spread throughout the body?

T cells

80

does varicella have a viremia stage?

yes

81

what virus causes this?

Q image thumb

chicken pox

82

what virus causes this?

Q image thumb

herpes zoster "shingles"

83

what happens if you have varicella zoster and are immunocompromised?

Reye-syndrome

post-herpetic neuralgia

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome

84

what procedure detects syncytia multinucleated giant cells?

Tzanck smear

85

what is seen here?

Q image thumb

syncytia

86

inclusion bodie with a halo are what type of inclusion bodies?

cowdry type A

87