Antibacterial/fungal/viral Flashcards Preview

Unit 4 > Antibacterial/fungal/viral > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibacterial/fungal/viral Deck (48)
1

How does the bacteria resist macrolides by alter target binding site?

Bacteria produce methyltransferases that alter 50s subunit

2

How does bacteria develop resistance to sulfonamides?

Increase production of PABA to out compete with sulfonamides

3

Which enzyme does beta lactam inhibit?

Transpeptidase

4

Do nafcillin/oxacillin resist beta lactamase?

Yes

5

Penicillin can be given with ___ to cover pseudomonas and enterococcus?

Aminoglycosides like gentamycin

6

How does beta lactamase inhibitor does its job?

Suicide inhibitor (irreversible inhibition)

7

What drug would inhibit penicillin/fluoroquinolone excretion, thus increase level of penicillin in the body?

Probenecid

8

Which 2 penicillins are excreted largely in the bile?

Nafcillin and oxacillin

9

What kind of pen G is used for syphilis?

Benzathine pen G (repository form)

10

How are most penicillin excreted?

Through kidney

11

What type of hypersensitivities can penicillin cause?

all 4 types

12

Which 2nd gen cephalosporin can enter CNS?

Cefuroxime

13

What generations of cephalosporins are resistant to beta lactamase?

3rd and 4th gen

14

What bacteria can't cephalosporin kill?

Listeria/syphilis/enterococci

15

What is the role of cilastatin for imipenem?

Prevent imipenem to be metabolized into nephrotoxic metabolites

16

If you are sensitive to penicilin or cephalosporin, what else can you get?

Aztreonam

17

Tx for mild and serious enterococcus?

Mild--->ampicilin
Serious--->vanco

18

What causes the red man syndrome?

Infuse vanco too fast

19

What do macrolides/tetracycline/chloramphenicol block?

Macrolides--->50s subunit--->block translocation
Tetracycline--->30s subunit--->block docking of tRNA
Chloramphenicol--->block peptidyl transferase

20

What can aminoglycosides do to your swole muscle?

Make it weak

21

Antibiotics that has side effect of phototoxicity? and how will it present clinically?

Tetracycline/sulfonamides/fluoroquinolone
Rash

22

What else can you use to treat chlamydia?

Azithromycin

23

What is the alternative for treating lyme disease for young kids?

Amoxicillin

24

What is tetracycline's effect on kids?

Teeth discoloration and decrease bone growth

25

How does macrolides treat gastroparesis?

Stimulate motilin receptors

26

How do you develop resistance to macrolide?

Methylation of binding site

27

Drug most used for CAP?

Macrolides

28

What is streptogramins? MOA? what are they used for?

Quinupristin + dalfopristin
Bind to 50s
Used like linezolid-->for VRSA/VRE

29

The mechanism of sulfonamide is similar to which drug?

Dapsone

30

What cancer drug has the same MOA as trimethoprim?

MTX

31

Where is sulfasalazine metabolized into 5-ASA? and why it is not as effective treating Crohn disease? and what drug do we usually used for Crohn disease?

Colon
It would only treat Crohn disease confined in the colon
Mesalamine

32

What else can treat listeria besides ampixillin?

Bactrim

33

How does sulfonamide cause kernicterus in neonate?

Compete with UCB to bind to albumin--->displace UCB--->UCB goes into the brain--->kernicterus

34

DNA gyrase is also called?

Topoisomerase II

35

If you can't used macrolide for CAP, what else can you used instead?

Levofloxacin

36

How does metronidazole kill the bacteria?

Convert to free radicals

37

How does terbinafine work against fungus?

Inhibit squalene epoxidase--->accumulate squalene--->toxic to the fungus

38

Which conazole cross BBB?

Fluconazole

39

MOA of flucytosine?

Activated by cytosine deaminase--->convert to 5-FU--->inhibit thymidylate synthase--->decrease thymine

40

How does phosphorylation of acyclovir come about?

Nucleoside--->First phosphate comes from the virus (thymidine kinase) the other 2 comes from host cells--->nucleotide

41

Why pt who's taking acyclovir need to be hydrated?

It might cause crystalluria

42

How does nucleoside become active as an anti metabolite?

Need to be phosphorylated first

43

Which 2 NRTIs can't you use at the same time?

Lamivudine and emtricitabine
They are both cytosine analogs

44

Which 2 NRTIs do we usually use nowadays?

Emtricitabine or lamivudine

45

What drug is used for prophylaxis for RSV for kids?

Palivizumab

46

What drugs are needed to treat P. vivax/ovale?

Chloroquine and primaquine

47

What drugs are used for prophylaxis of malaria?

Chloroquine for chloroquine sensitive area
Mefloquine is used otherwise

48

What cause hemolytic anemia with G6PD deficiency?

Primaquine/quinine/sulfonamide