Flashcards in DM drugs Deck (26)
Difference between DM1 and DM2?
DM1 born with it--->need insulin injection--->prone to DKA
DM2 late onset--->HHS
What increase and inhibits insulin?
Increase insulin--->glucose/sulfonylurea/M agonist/beta 2 agonist
Decrease insulin--->alpha 2 agonists
What are the short, intermediate, long acting insulin?
Long acting--->glargine (basal)
What kind of insulin is used for meals?
Shorting acting after each meal
When is glargine's peak?
What are the symptoms of DKA?
polyuria/polydipsia/dehydration/Kussmaul breathing/fruity breath
How to treat DKA
Replenish K first if K is low/IV regular insulin and hydration /dextrose when glucose is 200-300
What is the only kind of insulin that can be given IV?
Which presents with higher glucose level, DKA or HHS?
Which glucose transporter is on beta cell of pancreas?
How does thiazide and loop cause hyperglycemia?
They cause hypokalemia--->keep K channel in beta cell of the pancreas open--->prevent insulin release--->hyperglycemia
What drug is used for insulinoma? how does it work?
Diazoxide--->keep K channel of the beta cell in pancreas open
What are sulfyonlurea and what are their MOA? side effect?
2nd gen--->Glyburide/glipizide---->inhibit K channel of the beta cell of pancreas--->increase insulin release
Weight gain and hypoglycemia
What are the 2 drugs that work just like sulfonylurea but short acting?
Use before meals
What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? tx?
MOA of metformin? side effect?
Inhibit hepatic gluconeogensis
Lactic acidosis with renal dysfunction
When else can you use metformin?
For PCOS---->offset insuline resistance
What is the MOA of acarbose and miglitol?
Inhibit alpha-glucosidase in small intestine--->prevent glucose breakdown
What is the MOA of TZD (thiazolidinediones)? and what are they? side effects?
"glitazone"--->bind to PPARs--->increase insulin receptor--->increase insulin sensitivity
What other group of drugs bind to PPAR?
What are the GLP-1 receptor agonists?
Exenatide and the "glutide"--->increase insulin release via incretin
What are the DDP-4 inhibitors? and what does DDP-4 do?
DDP-4 degrade GLP-1
Which drug is an amylin analog and what is its MOA?
Pramlinitide--->make you feel full--->decrease appetite
What are SGLT-2 do and what drugs inhibit them?
SGLT-2 mediate glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of kidney
How to treat DM1 and DM2?
DM1--->basal insulin with meal time insulin
DM2--->check liver--->if liver is bad--->insulin
If liver is good check kidney--->if kidney is bad can't use metformin
If kidney is good--->use metformin first