ANTIBIOTICS + ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANTIBIOTICS + ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Deck (24):
1

what does a bacteria cell contain?

Cell Wall
Cell membrane
No nuclear membrane
(DNA)
Ribosome (30s)(50s)

2

what does a mammalian cell contain?

No Cell Wall
Cell membrane
Nuclear membrane
(DNA)
Ribosome (40s)(60s)

3

what are the distinguishing features of bacteria?

shape
growth requirement
cell wall
DNA
ribosomes

4

what are growth requirements?

Optimum temperature
Optimum pH
Atmospheric conditions
nutrients

5

what is aerobic?

is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth

6

what is anaerobic?

which grows in the presence of air or requires oxygen

7

what is facultative?

can use oxygen but also has anaerobic methods of energy production

8

what are the 3 main groups of bacteria?

gram stained bacteria
acid-fast bacilli
atypicals

9

what are the different types of gram stained bacteria?

Gram positive
aerobes or anaerobes
Gram negative
aerobes or anaerobes

10

what is acid-fast bacilli?

mycobacteria

11

what are atypicals?

Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae & Mycoplasmas not classed as bacteria

12

what is the purpose of the gram stain procedure?

distinguishes between Gram +ve and Gram -ve groups by colouring these cells red or violet

13

what colour does Gram +ve produce and why?

(blue/purple)
Thick peptidoglycan cell wall retains primary stain

14

what colour does Gram -ve produce and why?

(pink/red)
Thin peptidoglycan cell wall does not retain primary stain and is protected by a lipophilic outer cell memb

15

What are the portals of entry into the body for micro-organisms?

Skin
Respiratory tract
GI tract
Urinogenital system
Conjuctiva

16

what are antibiotics?

a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms

17

define antibacterial

destructive to or inhibiting the growth of bacteria

18

define antimicrobial

destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and especially pathogenic microorganism

19

define disinfectant

a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria

20

define bactericidal

a drug or substance which kills bacteria, or is capable of killing bacteria

21

define bacteriostatic

Capable of inhibiting the growth or reproduction of bacteria

22

what are beta lactams?

interfere with cross linkage of peptidoglycans
bactericidal

23

give examples of beta lactams

penicillins, cephalosporins

24

what are glycopeptides?

inhibit peptidoglycan formation
bactericidal