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Flashcards in ENDOCRINE WORKSHOP Deck (33):
1

what does the endocrine system contain?

Higher centres(brain)
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Adrenal cortex
Gonads (ovaries,testis)
thyroid

2

what are common endocrine disorders?

Diabetes mellitus
(Type 1, Type 2)
Thyroid disease
(Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism)

3

what is the gonadal function in females?

f

4

what is the gonadal function in males?

m

5

what is the Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis?

h

6

what is the Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis?

h

7

how is aldosterone secretion controlled?

independent of cortisol secretion

8

what hormones are involved in homeostasis?

insulin
glucagon
Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
Catecholamines

9

what is insulin secreted by?

by pancreatic beta cells

10

what do beta cells sense?

glucose

11

what does insulin inhibit?

hepatic glucose release
NEFA release from adipose tissue

12

what does insulin down regulate?

glucagon secretion

13

what does insulin promote?

tissue glucose uptake

14

what is glucagon secreted by?

pancreas alpha cells

15

what is the secretion of glucagon negatively regulated by?

insulin

16

what is the secretion of glucagon positively regulated by?

catecholamines

17

what does glucagon promote?

glucose release (liver)

18

what does glucagon stimulate?

NEFA release adipose tissue

19

what is GLP-1 secreted by?

small intestine L cells

20

what is GLP-1 secretion promoted by?

insulin

21

what does GLP-1 act on?

beta cells -Promotes glucose mediated insulin secretion

22

what does GLP-1 inhibit?

glucagon secretion

23

what does GLP-1 delay?

gastric emptying
Suppresses appetite

24

does GLP-1 have a long or short half-life?

very short

25

give examples of Catecholamines

adrenaline noradrenaline

26

what do Catecholamines include?

Hormones and neurotransmitters

27

what do Catecholamines promote?

glucose release from liver
as hormones

28

what do Catecholamines stimulate?

glucagon secretion
as neurotransmitters

29

what are the classifications of diabetes?

type 1 and type 2

30

what is type 1 diabetes?

Young age
rapid onset, life threatening. Autoimmunity

31

what is type 2 diabetes?

Middle age
Metabolic, weight gain, excercise
Hypertension; dyslipidaemia; increase in CHD

32

what is the management of type 1 diabetes?

giving insulin

33

what is the management of type 2 diabetes?

lifestyle; diet exercise ; prevention