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Flashcards in HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION Deck (17):
1

what is a hospital acquired infection?

nosocomial 
An infection caught while hospitalised

2

what are HAI caused by?

due to bacteria

3

what are the risk factors for nosocomial infection?

Duration of hospital stay
Antibiotic usage
Age
Immune deficiency
Indwelling catheters
Mechanical ventilation

4

what is Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)?

any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted

5

what is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

an infection involving any part of the urinary system, including urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidney.

6

what is the most important risk factor for developing a catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI)?

prolonged use of the urinary catheter

7

what is the UTI bacteria?

Enteric pathogens (eg, Escherichia coli) are most commonly responsible

8

what is E.coli?

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped, commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms

9

what is sepsis?

a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs

10

what are common signs and symptoms of sepsis?

fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and confusion

11

when are you more likely to develop sepsis?

recently had surgery
a urinary catheter fitted
in hospital for a long time

12

what is MRSA?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a gram-positive bacterium
MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans

13

where can MRSA be transmitted?

in hospital

14

what does MRSA usually cause?

Wound infections after surgery
Pneumonia (lung infection)

15

what is Clostridium difficile (C.Diff)?

Spore-forming anaerobic Gram positive bacillus bacterium

16

what is the function of spores in C.Diff?

facilitate the organism’s survival in conditions of adversity

17

how is C.Diff diagnosed?

requires a positive for a minimum of two tests
Clostridium difficile antigen – Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) – identifies the presence of the organism
Toxin tests; either:
(ELISA) or (PCR)