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Flashcards in Antihypertensives II Deck (32)
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1

What are the alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers?

Prazosin
Terazosin
Doxazosin

2

What do alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers cause?

Decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Decreased venous capacitance

3

What calcium channel is more important in smooth muscle?

Both L-type and T-type calcium current

4

What calcium channel is more important in cardiac muscle?

L-type calcium current

5

What do dihydropyridines inhibit?

ONLY T-type calcium current channels!

6

What are the only drugs that inhibit L-type calcium channels?

Verapamil
Diltiazem
(never DHPs)

7

What inhibits T-type calcium channels?

DHPs
Diltiazem
Verapamil

8

How do calcium channel blockers work?

By decreasing the voltage of calcium channels so that they are not easily activated; effectively prolongs the inactivation time of the channels/refractory period

9

What do DHPs such as Nifedipine cause?

Reflex HR
Reflex Contractility
Reflex AV conductance

10

Why do DHPs cause a reflex in HR/contractility/AV conductance?

Because they cause vasodilation in the periphery but do not affect the L-type channels in the myocardium so the myocardium compensates

11

What are the DHPs?

Nifedipine: short-acting
Felodipine: long-acting
Amlodipine: long-acting

12

What are the direct vasodilators?

Hydralazine
Minoxidil

13

What two ways does hydralazine work?

1.) Activates Ca-activated potassium channels in SM causing hyperpolarization
2.) Inhibits IP3-induced Ca release from SR in SM

14

How does Minoxidil work?

Activates ATP-dependent K channels causing hyperpolarization of SM cells

15

What are the aldosterone antagonists?

Spironolactone
Eplerenone

16

Where can the RAAS blockers block?

Renin
ACE
A-II receptor

17

What are the renin antagonists?

Aliskiren

18

What are the ACE inhibitors?

Captopril
Lisinopril

19

What are the A-II receptor antagonists?

Losartan

20

What receptor does A-II bind and work on?

AT-1 (angiotensin 2 receptor type-I) angiotensin I does not affect a receptor

21

What does A-II cause?

Vasoconstriction and renin formation inhibition

22

What does A-III cause?

Activation of aldosterone and reabsorption of Na and water

23

What does renin do?

Cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

24

Three categories of diuretics:

Potassium sparing
Thiazide
Loop diuretics

25

What are the potassium sparing diuretics?

Amiloride
Triamterene

26

What are the thiazide diuretics?

Hydrochlorothiazide

27

What are the loop diuretics?

Furosemide
Torsemide

28

What are the first three drugs to start a patient with hypertension based on their ethnicities and co-morbidities?

1.) ACE inhibitor or A-I receptor antagonist
2.) Calcium entry blocker
3.) Thiazide diuretic

29

What antihypertensives do not work well on Africans?

ACE inhibitor or A-II
Calcium blockers

30

What antihypertensive do you give to Africans?

Thiazide diuretics