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Flashcards in Urinalysis DIAL Deck (37)
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1

What are the 7 test on a standard dipstick?

Glucose
Ketones
Leukocyte esterase
Nitrate
pH
Protein
Specific gravity

2

What are the 3 components of a normal urinalysis?

Physical examination
Chemical examination
Microscopic examination

3

How is a proper urinalysis sample collected?

Clean genitals
Do a mid-stream catch
Do not let sit for longer than 1 hour

4

Glucose positive implications?

Diabetes mellitus

5

Ketone positive implications?

Diabetic ketosis
Starvation

6

Leukocyte esterase positive implications?

WBC presence either as whole or lysed cells UTI

7

Leukocyte esterase negative implications?

No UTI and further microscopic and or urine culture is not necessary

8

Nitrate positive implications?

Indicates that bacteria may be present in significant numbers

9

What bacteria will cause a positive nitrate test?

Gram negative rods such as E. coli

10

Protein positive implications?

Nephrotic syndrome
Nephritic syndrome

11

Specific gravity implications?

Determined by presence of solutes and directly proportional to urine osmolality

12

Significance of bilirubin in the urine?

Liver dysfunction
Biliary obstruction
(large amounts of soluble conjugated bilirubin can enter blood then filter)

13

Significance of urobinogen in the urine?

Hepatitis
Hemolytic anemia
(liver cannot uptake all of the urobinogen due to dysfunction in hepatitis or overwhelmed in anemia)

14

What can urine sodium values tell you?

Hypervolemia
Edema
Hyponatremia

15

What would low urine sodium levels tell you?

Early obstruction uropathy
Oliguria of acute glomerular nephritis

16

What would high urine sodium levels tell you?

Diuretics
Emesis
Hypothyroidism
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)

17

What can urine potassium levels tell you?

Hypokalemia

18

What can cause low urine potassium levels tell you?

Significant decrease in serum plasma potassium over several days

19

What do high urine potassium levels tell you?

Hyperaldosteronism

20

How is a urine specimen prepared and examined microscopically?

10-15 mL centrifuged for 5-10 minutes decant the supernate leaving .2-.5 mL with the sediment, take sediment and resuspend pour it onto a glass slide and coverslip it

21

What does the presence of dysmorphic RBCs in the urine tell you? Why?

Glomerulonephritis
Odd shaped because they squeeze through glomerular structure

22

Renal tubular epithelial cells in urine:

Nephrotic syndrome
Smaller than TECs

23

Ovoid fat bodies in urine:

Endogenous fats droplets
Maltese cross when seen under polarized light microscopy

24

Transitional epithelial cells in urine:

Renal pelvis, ureter or bladder
Large nuclei

25

Squamous cells in urine:

Possible contamination of specimen with skin flora

26

Where are casts formed?

Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct

27

How are urinary casts formed?

Tamm-Horsfall protein (Mucoprotein) secreted in the TAL, DCT is glue that holds constituents together

28

Hyaline casts:

Protein cast with long, thin tails formed at TAL DCT junction

29

RBC casts:

Glomerulonephritis or severe tubular damage

30

WBC casts:

Acute pyelonephritis
Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of kidney