Flashcards in Urinalysis DIAL Deck (37)
What are the 7 test on a standard dipstick?
What are the 3 components of a normal urinalysis?
How is a proper urinalysis sample collected?
Do a mid-stream catch
Do not let sit for longer than 1 hour
Glucose positive implications?
Ketone positive implications?
Leukocyte esterase positive implications?
WBC presence either as whole or lysed cells UTI
Leukocyte esterase negative implications?
No UTI and further microscopic and or urine culture is not necessary
Nitrate positive implications?
Indicates that bacteria may be present in significant numbers
What bacteria will cause a positive nitrate test?
Gram negative rods such as E. coli
Protein positive implications?
Specific gravity implications?
Determined by presence of solutes and directly proportional to urine osmolality
Significance of bilirubin in the urine?
(large amounts of soluble conjugated bilirubin can enter blood then filter)
Significance of urobinogen in the urine?
(liver cannot uptake all of the urobinogen due to dysfunction in hepatitis or overwhelmed in anemia)
What can urine sodium values tell you?
What would low urine sodium levels tell you?
Early obstruction uropathy
Oliguria of acute glomerular nephritis
What would high urine sodium levels tell you?
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
What can urine potassium levels tell you?
What can cause low urine potassium levels tell you?
Significant decrease in serum plasma potassium over several days
What do high urine potassium levels tell you?
How is a urine specimen prepared and examined microscopically?
10-15 mL centrifuged for 5-10 minutes decant the supernate leaving .2-.5 mL with the sediment, take sediment and resuspend pour it onto a glass slide and coverslip it
What does the presence of dysmorphic RBCs in the urine tell you? Why?
Odd shaped because they squeeze through glomerular structure
Renal tubular epithelial cells in urine:
Smaller than TECs
Ovoid fat bodies in urine:
Endogenous fats droplets
Maltese cross when seen under polarized light microscopy
Transitional epithelial cells in urine:
Renal pelvis, ureter or bladder
Squamous cells in urine:
Possible contamination of specimen with skin flora
Where are casts formed?
Distal convoluted tubule
How are urinary casts formed?
Tamm-Horsfall protein (Mucoprotein) secreted in the TAL, DCT is glue that holds constituents together
Protein cast with long, thin tails formed at TAL DCT junction
Glomerulonephritis or severe tubular damage