Introduction to Renal Pathology I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Renal Pathology I Deck (37)
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1

What are the three non-neoplastic kidney diseases?

Glomerular
Tubulointerstitial
Renovascular

2

What labs do you look at for kidney altered function?

Serum
Urine

3

What labs do you look at for kidney altered structures?

Tissue biopsies

4

What are three methods you would use with a tissue biopsy?

Light microscopy
Immunofluorescence
Electronmicroscopy

5

What stains do you use for in light microscopy?

H and E
Silver
Trichrome
PAS

6

What do you use in immunofluorescence?

Antibodies to identify abnormal proteins in glomerulus; usually inflammation looking for complement

7

What do you look for with an electronmicroscopy?

Altered ultrastructure, primarily glomerulus

8

What is found in azotemia?

Increased BUN and creatinine in the serum

9

What are non-neoplastic renal diseases also called and why?

Medical kidney diseases
Because they do not require surgical intervention just medical intervention

10

What does Renovascular disease typically have to do with?

Hypertension

11

What does Tubulointerstitial disease involve and what causes it?

Tubular ducts or interstitium damage caused by toxins, ischemia or drugs

12

What usually causes glomerular disease?

Immune based

13

What altered function comes from glomerulus disease?

Issue with filtration and decreased GFR

14

What altered function comes from tubule disease?

Reabsorption and secretion

15

What are the clinical manifestations of azotemia?

Increased BUN and creatinine plasma levels due to decreased GFR

16

What is seen in nephritic (inflammation of) syndrome?

Hematuria
INFLAMMATION
Mild to moderate proteinuria
Hypertension
Decreased GFR

17

What is seen in nephrotic (disease of) syndrome?

Heavy proteinuria
Hypoalbuminemia
Severe edema
Decreased GFR
Altered glomerular filtration barrier

18

What is severe edema due to loss of protein called?

Anasarca

19

What does azotemia lead to?

Uremia and multisystem organ failure

20

What characterizes acute kidney injury?

Rapid decrease in GFR
Increase in BUN/Cr
Oliguria or anuria

21

What characterizes chronic kidney disease?

Persistent decrease in GFR
Persistent albuminuria

22

What characterizes end-stage renal disease?

GFR less than 5% normal
Uremia

23

What characterizes renal tubular defects?

Polyuria
Nocturia
Electrolyte abnormalities

24

What is nephrolithiasis?

Kidney stone formation IN the kidney

25

What is urolithiasis?

Kidney stone formation somewhere (other than kidney) in the urinary tract

26

What are the barriers the filtrates must cross from inside the BV to the tubule?

Capillary endothelial cells
Glomerular basement membrane
Visceral epithelial cells (podocytes)

27

What are the parietal epithelial cells?

Cells that make up the tubules

28

What are mesangial cells?

Cells embed in the GBM and ECM

29

Role of mesangial cells?

Phagocytosis
Contraction
Creation of EC proteins

30

What EC protein do mesangial cells that are essential to the glomerular basement membrane?

Collagen type IV