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Flashcards in Diuretics I Deck (53)
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1

Which ion transporter do the most effective diuretics and natriuretics work upon?

NKCC2 in the TAL

2

Broad mechanism of action for osmotic diuretics?

1.) Freely filtered by glomerulus
2.) No reabsorption from urine
3.) Must be pharmacologically-inert

3

Natriuresis vs diuresis:

Natriuresis: sodium excretion causing urination, large amounts of sodium in the urine
Diuresis: urination due to excretion of water, dilute urine

4

Administration of osmotic diuretics:

IV only, oral use laxative

5

Natriuretics:

Aldosterone antagonists
Diuretics

6

Aldosterone antagonists:

Spironolactone
Eplerenone

7

Three general diuretic categories:

Potassium sparing
Thiazide diuretics
Loop diuretics

8

Potassium sparing diuretics:

Amiloride
Triamterene

9

Thiazide diuretics:

Hydrochlorothiazide

10

Loop diuretics:

Furosemide
Torsemide

11

What occurs with inhibition of carbonic anhydrase?

You get reduced plasma bicarbonate levels

12

With reduced bicarbonate levels in the plasma what do you get?

It is replaced by chloride leading to hypercholoremic acidosis

13

What is refractoriness?

Natriuresis being reduced by bicarbonate depletion

14

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor:

Acetazolamide (it's a sulfonamide)

15

What competes with uric acid for secretion and can lead to inhibition of uric acid secretion?

Diuretics
Penicillins
Low-dose aspirin

16

Thiazide diuretic affect on calcium?

Reduce urinary calcium excretion
Reduce renal calculus formation
Positive calcium balance

17

Loop diuretic effect on calcium?

Increased urinary calcium excretion
Support renal calculus formation
Negative calcium balance

18

What occurs with sodium delivery into the DCT?

Any intervention increasing sodium delivery to DCT stimulates potassium excretion (Na in K out to lumen)

19

What is the active substrate for renin in plasma?

Alpha-2-globulin angiotensinogen

20

What increases plasma angiotensinogen levels?

Glucocorticoids
Estrogens

21

Alternative pathway for angiotensin I conversion?

Angiotensin I -> Angiotensin 1-9 via ACE II -> Angiotensin 1-7 via ACE

22

What receptor does angiotensin I work on?

ATR-1

23

What receptors does angiotensin II work on?

ATR-1
ATR-2

24

What receptors does angiotensin III work on?

ATR-1
ATR-2

25

What receptor does angiotensin 1-7 work on?

MAS receptor

26

Action of ATR-1 when stimulated?

Vasoconstriction
Pro-inflammatory
Pro-mitotic

27

Action of ATR-2 and MAS receptors when stimulated?

Oppose:
Vasoconstriction
Pro-inflammatory
Pro-mitotic

28

Aldosterone action on kidneys:

Sodium reabsorption
Sodium potassium exchange in DCT
Sodium hydrogen exchange in DCT

29

Aldosterone action on CNS:

Increased BP

30

Aldosterone action on heart:

Cardiac hypertrophy