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Flashcards in Ureter an Bladder Function Deck (16):
1

Where is the longitudinal layer and circular layer of muscle found in the ureter respectively?

Inner layer
Outer layer

2

What causes the peristaltic movements in the ureter?

Interstitial cells of Cajal

3

Grade I:

Reflux in ureter only

4

Grade II:

Reflux in ureter and renal pelvis w/o distention

5

Grade III:

Reflux into ureter and renal pelvis causing very mild hydronephrosis

6

Grade IV:

Reflux causing moderate hydronephrosis

7

Grade V:

Reflux causing severe hydronephrosis and twisting of ureter

8

What is found on top of the transitional epithelial umbrella cells?

A glycosaminoglycan layer (for protection)

9

Three muscles and their types in the bladder?

Detrusor: smooth muscle
Internal urethral sphincter: smooth muscle
External urethral sphincter: skeletal muscle

10

What does the SNS innervate?

Internal sphincter/detrusor/trigone: stimulates alpha to cause contraction and beta receptors in the bladder to cause detrusor relaxation

11

What does the somatic nervous system do?

Causes voluntary contraction of external sphincter to not urinate

12

What does PSNS do?

Innervates detrusor to contract to urinate

13

Where do sympathetic come from?

Hypogastric nerves

14

Where do PSNS come from?

Pudendal

15

Internal signaling of beta receptors?

cAMP to inhibit contraction

16

Internal signaling of alpha receptors?

IP3 to release Ca2+ causing contraction