Flashcards in Assessment Deck (93):
What is the purpose of assessment?
To ID target behaviors a guide an effective intervention
If "assessment" was a shape, what would it be?
A funnel, because it starts out broad and gets more specific.
What are the 5 phases of assessment? IN ORDER
1)Screening and general disposition
2). Defining problems
3. Pinpointing target behaviors
4). Monitoring Progress
Before assessing a client, what do you need from parents and guardians?
What are considered to be "indirect" measures of assessment?
SUBJECTIVE: checklists, interviews.
What could be wrong with indirect measures? What should you watch our for?
They are not as reliable. They start the hypothesis but are supplementary to the process
What are considered to be "direct measures" of assessment?
OBJECTIVE: direct observation or tests
Which method of assessment measure is preferred?
What are four ways to get information for an assessment?
Checklists, Observation, Interviews, Tests
What are checklists?
Likert scales, may ask about antecedents and/or consequences. EX: Adaptive Behavior checklist
Talk about observations
Direct and repeated in the natural environment, you can ID target behaviors. PREFERRED METHOD!!
What is anecdotal observation?
ABC data recording. Temporally sequenced chain of events. Should be done continuously for 20-30 minutes. Must have ability to put all attention towards the client. Should only record measurable observations, not opinions.
Is ABC data a indirect or direct measurment
Direct Measurement, because it's an obseravtion
Talk about interviews
First step in ID'ing a list of behaviors, You could interview the individual or a significant other. Ask WH questions about behavior
Talk about tests
Standardized tests. Many do not work well because they do not translate into functional target behaviors
When you begin an assessment, what should you do with any previous data?
Review all the records and available data.
What should you do about medical causes for behavior?
Ethically, you are required to rule them out!
There is no medical cause for the behavior. Now what do you do?
Start with indirect assessments: interviews and checklists. Gather information regarding the behavior. Then, move on to direct observation and data collection.
When conducting interviews and indirect assessments, what are some questions you should ask yourself regarding the behavior?
do the behavior pose a danger to themselves or others?
Does it affect the client's well being?
Does it prevent the person from accessing less restrictive settings?
How does the behavior compare to same-aged peers?
When explaining results, treatment options, etc., what type of language should you use?
Non-technical language. However, do NOT use mentalistic language, either.
Is reviewing records direct or indirect assessment?
Why should you use non-mentalistic terms when describing a client, their behavior or assessment results?
Because mentalistic terms do not provide a solution. They give a circular way of thinking.
What are the ethical guidelines regarding collaboration?
As a BCBA, it is your job to collaborate with other professionals to increase success in your case.
What are environmental and resource constraints?
These are elements of the families environment or their resources that may hold back interventions. Ex. not having a card, not having time to implement and intervention.
Why is it important to look at constraints before implementing an intervention?
The probability of an intervention being implemented with constraints in small. We also have an ethical duty and responsibility to those who the intervention effects. Therefore, we must take this into consideration.
When looking at an intervention, where is one of the first places you could possibly implement change?
The client's environment
What elements would be included in a client's "environment"?
The place of therapy, people, furniture, lighting, noise, etc.
As an analyst, what should you do if you find environmental constraints that are slowing down progress of an intervention?
Eliminate them, do your best to do so or communicate these environmental constraints in writing.
What is an ecological assessment?
Very descriptive, a ton of information, this goes into the different settings, people, relationships, etc.
What is reactivity?
When a client is aware that they are being observed. Usually happens when the observation is intrusive.
Which is the most intrusive data collection method?
How can you counter-act reactivity effects?
Be unobtrusive, repeat observations until the effects subside and take these elements into account when looking at your data.
When identifying potential target behaviors, what should you consider?
How will it change the person's life?
Whose behavior is being assessed and why?
Is it necessary, or is it simply annoying to someone else?
What is habilitation?
When a person's repertoire has been changed in a way that short and long-term reinforcers are maximized which short-long term punishers are minimized.
What is a behavioral cusp?
Behaviors that open a person's world to new contingencies. This could mean: new reinforcers and punishers, new environments, new responses and stimuli.
Behavior cusps have ______ and _______ consequences.
Sudden and dramatic
What is a pivotal behavior?
A behavior that is so critical, it is learned and leads to more complex behavior.
What is the difference between behavioral cusps and pivotal behavior?
Cusps are about gaining NEW contingencies and environments. NOT BEHAVIOR.
Pivotal behaviors are about experiencing corresponding changes in other untrained behaviors. NOT environments.
How should you prioritize target behaviors?
1. Threat to health or safety of client or others.
2. Frequency- are there opps. to use new behavior? How often does occurrence of problem behavior occur?
3. Chronic problems should come before new ones
4. Potential for higher rates of R+
5. Relative importance of the target behavior for future functioning and skill development?
6. Reducing negative attention from others
7. Reinforcement of significant others
8. Likelihood of success
9. Cost-Benefit ratio to change the client's behavior: Costs include time and effort.
What are "default technologies"?
These are arbitrary, coercive and punishment based interventions. EX. Go to your room!
What is the hierarchy of FBA methods?
1. indirect assessment
2. Describtive, Direct assessment
3. Functional Analysis
What is the only FBA method that allows you to confirm a hypothesis about a functional relation regarding a behavior?
What is considered the "Gold standard" of assessment procedures?
What is a Functional Analysis?
This is where you contrive the environment, arranging consequences and antecedents around behavior.
What are two types of FA's?
1). Extended FA
2). Brief FA
What are the four stages/conditions of an FA?
2- Play (control)
What is the, sometimes, added 5th condition?
When do you use the 5th condition?
When you suspect that a tangible may be serving as the function.
When interpreting an FA graph, how can you determine the maintaining function?
The function raises to the top. (Think, it floats).
What happens if you have an FA graph that looks like a "spider web"?
This means that a). the results are inconclusive OR b). The maintaining function is automatic reinforcement.
What is an extended FA?
This is when all stages of an FA are conducted. (i.e. all functions are tested for)
What is a brief FA?
This is when the stages of the FA are done for short periods of time (i.e. 10 minutes).
What are some advantages of FA's?
They give a clear cause/function of behavior. Enables an effective function-based, reinforcement-based treatment
What are disadvantages of FA's?
They are not accepted well, they can temporarily strengthen behavior, not a good choice for serious/low frequency behaviors. Also requires a lot of time, expertise and effort.
What is a Direct descriptive FBA?
This is where you observe the behavior in the natural environment. They are an approximation to an FA.
Which FBA method requires baseline data?
Direct Descriptive FBA.
What are 3 data collections for descriptive FBA's?
1. ABC continuous recording
2. ABC narrative recording
What is an ABC narrative recording?
ABC data is taken only when the behavior occurs.
What are some disadvantages of narrative recording?
They cannot find function, may create false positives, reliability may be low. It is difficult to discriminate which environmental events actually occasion the problem behavior.
What is an ABC continuous recording?
Recorded for 20-30 minutes. The clinician records the problem behavior and selected environmental events within the natural routine during a specified period of time.
What are the advantages of ABC continuous recording?
uses precise measures, can provide useful context clues, calculate conditional probabilities.
What are disadvantages of ABC continuous recording?
Correlations can, often, be difficult to detect.
What is a scatterplot?
Days are divided into blocks of time. Looks at recording problem behavior to see if it occurs at one particular time of day over others.
What are advantages of scatterplot?
It can pinpoint times of days, periods of time where behavior is likely to occur.
What are disadvantages of scatterplots?
They are subjective. Do not determine function. Does not offer a replacement behavior
What are indirect FBA's?
gathering information from people around the client. This can be done through checklists, rating scales and interviews
Advantages of Indirect FBAs?
do not require observations, give you information to develop a hypothesis
Disadvantages of Indirect FBA's?
Information may not be accurate.There is little reliability. Subjective.
Your intervention must match the _________.
Function of the client's behavior.
Your FBA shows that the client's behavior should be Established.....
they do not have the target behavior and you need to teach it.
Your FBA shows that the client's behavior should be Maintained...
The client has the skill but it needs to be worked on over to time to maintain
Your FBA shows that the client's behavior should be Increased.....
increase the target behavior to an acceptable level
Your FBA shows that the client's behavior should be decreased....
Decrease the target behavior to an acceptable level or eliminate it if need be.
Assessment is _________.
What are 3 characteristics of a good operational definition?
Objective, clear, complete.
Social validity includes 3 things. What are they?
1- social significance of the goals
2- social appropriateness of the procedures
3- Social importentence of the effects.
What are two types of procedures for ID'ing effective reinforcers?
1- stimulus preference assessment
2- Reinforcer assessment
What are 3 types of Stimulus preference assessments?
2-. Free operant (observing)
3 Trial based methods
3 different ways to "ask" in stimulus preference assessment:
ask target person, significant others, pre-task choice
2 types of Free operant observation:
Contrived: The clinician fills the environment with things they think the client may like.
Naturalistic: occurs in the learner's natural environment. It is recorder how the learner allocates their time.
What are three ways to measure a learner's engagement with an item?
What are 3 types of trial based methods for stimulus preference assessment?
Paired Stimulus-presenting two stimuli at the same time. Every pair of stimuli must be presented.
Multiple Stimulus- presenting an array of 3 or more. Reduces assessment time
Single Stimulus- Most basic method. Stimuli presented one at a time
What are two variations of Multiple stimulus Preference assessments?
1- With replacement: You replace the item in the array with a new one.
2- without replacement- You do not replace the item
What are three types of reinforcer assessments?
1- concurrent Schedule Reinforcer Assessment
2- Multiple Schedule R.A.
3- Progressive-Ratio S.R.A.
What is a concurrent schedule reinforcer assessment?
Choices. Offering two stimuli, the learner must choose. Often pits a HP and LP stimuli against each other. MATCHING LAW
What is a Multiple Schedule Reinforcer Assessment?
Presenting 2 or more component schedules of reinforcement for a single response with only one component schedule.
What is a progressive-Ratio schedule reinforcer assessment?
looks at how effective a stimulus is as reinforcement as requirements increase. Requirements for R+ increase systmatically over time.
How is a punisher assessment conducted?
Similar to reinforcement assessments. They measure negative verbalizations, avoidance movements, escape, etc.
When writing an operational definition, a "functional" definition is:
one that focuses on consequences
When writing an operational definition, a "topographical" definition is:
What the behavior looks like
An operational definition should be objective. What exemplifies objectivity in a definition?
It refers ONLY to observable behavior or elements of the environment
What exemplifies clarity in an operational definition?
The definition should be readable and unambiguous.