Flashcards in Ethics Deck (56):
What are the possible unwanted effects of Reinforcement?
-The effects can be temporary
-If the behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement, then this can be considered aversive.
- Reinforcers themselves may be harmful (i.e. chocolate, soda..)
- Reinforcers should be natural and not contrived
-Reinforcement is often confused with bribery
What are the ethical considerations when using punishment?
-Reinforcement should ALWAYS be used first.
- Society does not like punishment
- the effects of punishment can be temporary
- It does not address the cause of the challenging behavior
-Behavioral contrast needs to be taken into consideration
What are some considerations when using response cost?
-removing reinforcers (are they basic needs?)
There are limitations on durations and methods of time out, per state.
Bursts, induced aggression, always to be used with reinforcement, everyone must be on board,
What are some ethical considerations for using MO's?
You need to be wary of using Reinforcers that that could be harmful and placing clients in a state of deprivation (without food/water, bathroom, etc.)
What ethical considerations are there when assessing behavior?
- Capability of administering assessments
- You should only accept clients whose needs match your abilities
-Before assessing, you should ask, "Who has the authority, permission, resources and skills to complete an assessment and intervene on this behavior?"
Discuss Medical reasons for behavior
When completing an FBA, you need to rule out any medical causes.
What are three important questions we as BCBA's ask ourselves?
1- What is the right thing to do?
2- What is worth doing?
3- what does it mean to be a good behavior analyst?
What are personal histories?
Professional trainings and experiences that may influence whether you use a method or not. Training should always override personal history!
What is social validity?
Will the results show meaningful, significant and sustainable change? The skill is socially acceptable to the client, family, analyst and society
Does every skill have social validity?
What are two ways to assess social validity?
Social comparison- what are typical, same age peers doing?
Subjective Evaluation of experts: what do people who know the client well say?
What is a cost benefit ratio?
Does the potential benefit to the person justify the short and long term costs?
What should the cost benefit ratio look like?
What does existing exgencies mean?
BX that is more severe warrants intervention first.
What are situational ethics?
The promise of fast results with severe bx.
What are six basic client rights?
1. therapuetic environment
2. most effective interventions possible
3. treatment by a competent BA
4. ongoing evaluation and assessment
5. Teach functional skills
6. Goal is personal welfare
Describe 1.01 Reliance on scientific knowledge
Base your interventions on scientific knowledge, empirically supported data.
Describe 1.02 Competence
Provide services only within your boundaries. Do not take on cases until you have taken the proper trainings, etc.
Describe 1.03 Professional Development
Maintain a reasonable level of competence in new science and studies. Go to conventions, workshops, conferences. Be aware of the most important new studies.
Describe 1.04 Integrity
Truthful and honest. Follow through with your obligations and your word. You behave in a legal and ethical way. Know and understand the laws in your area.
Describe 1.05 Professional and scientific relationships
Only provide services in renumerated realationship. Only use language that can be understood by others. Make appropriate referrals. Do not discriminate. Do not engaged in behavior that harasses of demeans people that you interact with. Do not provide services if you are having personal problems that may interfear.
1.06 Dual Realtionships
You must be sensitive to the harmful effects of dual relationships. Recognize and inform the other party if a dual relationship occurs. Do not accept gifts.
1.07 Exploitative Realtionships
Do not exploit others (clients, families, employees, etc). Do not engage in sexual relationships with clients, students or supervisees. Refrain from sexual relationships with the above for 2 years. Do not barter for services unless written in a contract requested by client, customary to the area, fair
2.01 accepting clients
Only accept clients that are you are properly trained to take and have the time for. Only accept clients who WANT services (i.e have requested them).
Responsible to all parties effected by services. If multiple parties are involved, must make a heriarchy of parties and Identify their relationship. Advocate for the primary beneficiary's rights.
arrange for appropriate consultations with consent, in the best interest of the client. Cooperate with other professionals when needed, in the best interest of the client.
2.04 Third Party Involvement
You cannot share information with others unless given consent. If giving services at the request of a third party, outline roles and responsibilities from the get go.
2.05 Rights and Perogatives of Clients
The rights of the client are the most important. The clients have the right to request an analyst's credentials. Permission for electronic recording of any kind needs to be obtained for all settings. Clients need to be given information about their right to lodge a complaint. BA's comply with criminal background checks
2.06 Maintaining Confidentiality
Protect confidentiality of the client!! Do not share information that goes against confidentiality on social media (video, pictures, etc). Only use information germane to the situation when using oral, written or electronic communication.
2.07 Maintaining Records
Maintain appropriate records in a confidential manner (creating, storing, accessing, transferring, etc). Maintain the records and dispose of them in a confidential way.
Do not disclose confidential information without the consent of the client. 4 reason you might disclose information:
consultation, to protect, payment, to provide services
2.09 Treatment and Intervention Efficacy
The recommended treatment should be the most effective. Your responsibility to advocate for and educate regarding the best possible intervention. Advocate for the appropriate amount and level of services, as well. BA's look at and review treatments that may effect the program goals.
2.10 Documenting Professional Work and Research
appropriately document professional work. Create and maintain documents with great detail that is consistent with best practices and laws.
2.11 Records and Data
Records and Data are kept for 7 years. Create, maintain, store and dispose of records in a way that adheres to laws and ethical guidelines.
2.12 Contracts, Fees and financial agreements
as early as possible, there is a contract outlining the responsibilities of all parties, scope of services to be provided and the code by which the BA is held to. Compensation and billing is discussed and agreed on as early as possible, as well. Fees are consistent with laws, similar to others in the area.
2.13 accuracy in billing reports
the nature of services must be accurately portrayed in reports. This includes the person receiving services, duration, outcomes and data.
2.14 Referrals and Fees
Do not take gifts, money, etc or give them for a professional referral. Should include multiple options and decisions made objectively. When giving a referral, any relationship needs to be disclosed to the client
2.15 Interrupting or Discontinuing Services
act in the best interest of the client. make reasonable and timely efforts to facilitate the continuation of services. Discontinuation only occurs if: they no longer need services, not benefitting, being harmed by continued services, the client request discontinuation.
Do not abandon clients and services. Attempt to continue with another provider, etc.
3.01 behavior analytic assessment
you must conduct current assessments before making recommendations. The type of assessment should be dictated by the needs of the client. You must collect and graphically display the data in a way that everyone can understand
3.02 Medical Consultation
If there is any reasonable possibility that a medical need is there, you must consult with a medical professional
3.03 Behavior analytic assessment consent
You must explain to the client what you are doing and gain consent for the assessment (in written form)
3.04 Explaining assessment results
You must explain the results of the assessment to the client, in a way that they can understand. Also, with graphs that portray the results and also in a way that people can understand
3.05 Consent-Client records
Obtain written consent from guardians before obtaining and disclosing records
4.01 Conceptual Consistency
Behavior change programs are consistent with the principles of ABA
4.02 Involving Client's in planning and consent
To the best of your ability, you need to involve the client
4.03 Indivualized Behavior-Change Program
Tailor behavior change programs to the client. Do not plagiarize other's work.
4.04 Approving Behavior Change Programs
You must obtain the client's written permission before implementing behavior change programs of significance.
4.05 Describing Behavior change program objectives
BA's describe, in writing, the objectives of a program for the client before implementation.
4.06 Describing Conditions for the behavior change program
Tell the client the environmental needs for the behavior change program
4.07 Environmental Conditions that interfere with implementation
Recommend other profressional assitance if needed with environmental factors. Seek to eliminate them if needed.
4.08 considerations regarding punishment procedures
Always recommend reinforcement, first!! If you need to use punishment, always use reinforcement for the alternative behaviors. you also must ensure that the correct steps have been taken to implement reinforcement based procedures and have data to verify. If you use aversive procedures, everyone on the team must be trained appropriately.
4.09 Least restrictive procedures
Always recommend the least restrictive procedures possible and review interventions for such restrictiveness.
4.10 Avoiding Harmful reinforcers
Minimize the use of items that could be harmful in mass quanitiies or over time.