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Flashcards in Schedules of Reinforcement Deck (64):
1

What is continuous reinforcement?

Providing reinforcement every time the behavior occurs.

2

When should you use CRF (continuous Reinforcement)

When teaching new behaviors

3

What are four types of intermittent reinforcement?

Variable ratio, variable interval, fixed ratio, fixed interval

4

What is the definition of intermittent reinforcement?

Some, but not all, occurrences of the behavior are reinforced.

5

What is intermittent reinforcement used for?

Mainly used for maintaining behaviors

6

What is the definition of "Fixed Ratio"?

Fixed Ratio: a set number of occurrences.

7

When is reinforcement delivered on a FR6?

Every 6th response.

8

When in reinforcement delivered on an FR4?

Every 4th response

9

What is the pattern of responding with Fixed Ration schedules?

Responses are made with little hesitation. Then there is a post- reinforcement pause.

10

What is a post reinforcement pause?

This is when, after reinforcement, the individual does not respond for a certain time. The larger the ratio, the longer the pauses. The shorter the ratio, the short the pauses.

11

Which schedule of reinforcement produces "steps" on a graph?

Fixed Ratio.

12

What is the rate of responding for Fixed Ratios?

The rate of responding is high. Quick responding produces reinforcement. The larger the ratio, the higher the rate of responding.

13

What is a variable ratio of reinforcement?

Variable ratio means an average amount of responses. The ratio is always changing. This is the STRONGEST BASIC schedule of INT Reinforcement.

14

When does reinforcement occur with a VR4 schedule?

An average of every 4th correct response.

15

When does reinforcement occur with a VR5 schedule?

An average of every 5th correct response.

16

What type of pattern does Variable ratio create?

It creates a steady pattern of responding.

17

Does Variable ratio schedules create a post-reinforcement pause? Why or Why not?

No! Maybe because the learner does not know how the criteria for the next reinforcement.

18

What time of rate of responding does a variable ratio schedule create?

Fast rate of responding. The larger the ratio, the faster the rate of response.

19

Which schedule of reinforcement creates a steep and super fast line graph?

Variable ratio

20

Define Fixed Interval schedule of reinforcement.

A constant amount of time elapses before reinforcement

21

When would reinforcement be delivered with an FI7?

after 7 minutes and a correct response

22

What is the pattern of responding with Fixed Interval schedules?

It does create a post-reinforcement pause, but only at the beginning of the interval. Then there is gradually accelorating behavior towards the end. This is known as the scallop.

23

What type of reinforcement schedule creates a "scallop" graph?

Fixed Interval

24

Does fixed interval schedules of reinforcement have a post-reinforcement pause?

Yes. Towards the beginning of the interval

25

Define a variable interval schedule of reinforcement

A changing amount of time before reinforcement is collected.

26

What type of pattern of responding do variable Interval schedules produce?

Constant and stable

27

What is the rate of responding for a variable interval schedule?

low-moderate rates of responding.

28

Which schedule of reinforcement creates a straight, diagonal line graph (that is not particularly steep)?

Variable Interval

29

Do variable schedules produce post reinforcement pauses?

NO!

30

What is a "ratio strain"?

When attempting to thin reinforcement schedules and there is an abrupt change in ratio requirements. This may cause clients to become aggressive, avoid stimuli or other problem behavior.

31

What can be done to reduce ratio strain?

When you see it happening, reduce the ratio requirements! (You thinned too fast! Bump it back up!)

32

What is a limited Hold?

This can be placed on interval schedules. This means that, the 1st correct response after the interval is over must occur in a certain amount of time. These can be

33

When do you use differential reinforcement schedules?

When challenging behavior has to do with too much or too little rates of responding.

34

What are the three types of differential reinforcement?

DRH (High rates of behavior), DRL (low rates of behavior) and DRD (Diminishing rates)

35

What is the definition of Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Responding (DRH)?

A reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for emitting behaviors that are AT or ABOVE a set rate

36

How does DRH effect behavior?

It helps to increase it.

37

DRH is used for behaviors that ____________

are displayed too infrequently.

38

What is the definition of Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates of Responding (DRD)?

A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement when the number or responses is a specified time period is LESS THAN or EQUAL TO a set number.

39

How does DRD effect behavior?

It decreases it, but does not eliminate it entirely

40

Does DRD eliminate behavior completely?

No.

41

DRD is used for behaviors that _________

Are exhibited too frequently

42

What is differential reinforcement of Low Rates of respodning (DRL)?

A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces after a behavior occurs following a specific period of tie during which it did not occur. EXAMPLE: Reinforcement is given after an Interresponse time of 15 seconds.

43

Interresponse time and response rate are ______

Functionally realted

44

How does DRL effect behavior responding?

Decrease it

45

If you use a long intterresponse time for DRT, what will happen to the rate of responding?

It will decrease.

46

If you use a short interresponse time for DRT, what will happen to the rate of responding?

It will increase.

47

Does DRL eliminate behavior completely?

No.

48

What is a progressive schedule of reinforcement?

A variation on basic Intermitten schedules. IT also systematically thins with each successive reinforcement opportunity INDEPENDENT OF THE CLIENT'S BEAHVIOR.

49

What is a progressive Schedule of Reinforcement?

This is a process of systematically increasing requirements for reinforcement, thus thinning the schedule. They are typically thinned to the "breaking point" when the client stops responding.

50

What is the definition of a compound schedule?

A schedule that uses a combo of CRF, INT schedules, Differential Reinforcement, and/or EXT

51

What is a concurrent schedule of Reinforcement ?

Occurs when 2 or more contingencies of reinforcement operated independently and simultaneously for 2 OR MORE BEHAVIORS. The person in question can choose between the two behaviors.

52

What is Matching Law?

A phenomenon in which organisms MATCH their responses according to the proportion of payoff.

When there are two choices, the learner will choose to engage in the behavior that produces the highest rate of reinforcement.

53

Which schedule of Reinforcement specifically uses Matching Law?

Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement

54

What are multiple schedules of reinforcement?

This provides 2 or more basic schedules of R+ in an ALTERNATING, USUALLY RANDOM SEQUENCE for one or more behaviors. This is correlated with an Sd.

55

Which schedule is correlated with the presence of an Sd?

Multiple Schedules, Chained Schedules

56

What are chained schedules of reinforcement?

2 or more basic schedule requirements, occurs successively, correlated with Sd,

57

What are the important factors of a Chained schedule of Reinforcement?

The basic schedule occur in a specific order, the behavior can be the same for all elements or could be different for each level, Conditioned reinforcement for first step in chain is the presentation of the second step.

58

What is a mixed schedule of reinforcement?

The same as multiple schedules, except NO Sd affiliation. Since there is no Sd, the invidual is not sure what schedule is in effect.

59

What is a tandem schedule of reinforcement?

Similar to the chained schedule, except does not use an Sd.

60

What is an alternative schedule of reinforcement?

Reinforcement when either the requirement for ration OR interval is met.

61

Which could be named the "either/or" schedule or reinforcement?

Alternative Schedule

62

What is a Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement?

Provides reinforcement with the completion of BOTH an interval and ratio.

63

What are adjunctive behaviors?

Those that could be brought out by numerous schedules of reinforcement.

64

What are some ethical considerations regarding schedules of reinforcement?

Schedules of reinforcement can also be schedules of punishment (see punishment ethical guidelines).