Flashcards in Behavior Change Procedures Deck (102):
The Premack Principle is AKA
Grandma's Law, Realativity Theory of Reinforcement
What is the Premack Principle?
Making high probability behaviors contingent on low probablity behaviors.
What is Response Deprivation Hypothesis
restricting access to a behavior/reinforcer, which causes a state of deprivation and an EO
What are 4 behavior-environmental relations that functionally define Imitation?
1- Formal Similarity- The model and behavior must have formal similarity
2- Model- any physical movement may be a model.
3- Immediacy: The model must occur immediately, or it's not true imitation
4. Controlled Relation: the model must serve as the Sd
What are two types of models for imitation?
Planned Model: prearranged antecedent stimuli
Unplanned Model: natural, occur in everyday
What are some prerequisite skills for imitation?
attending, sitting, keeping hands in lap, etc.
What are the five stages of imitation training?
1- assess and teach any prerequisites
2-Select Models for teaching
4. Sequence from easy to difficult
What models should you select in imitation training/
a variety of: GMI, OMI, with objects, with body parts, fine motor
What is shaping?
Reinforcing successive approxmations
What is differential reinforcement?
Providing reinforcement for behavior in a response class that meet a specific criteria and putting the other behaviors on extinction
Shaping involves what kind of behaviors?
What is response Differentiation?
Behavior change produced by differential reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement/ response differentiation results in what?
a new response class
What are the two types of shaping?
Across response topographies, within response topographies
What does it mean to shape behaviors across response topographies?
The topography of the behavior changes through shaping but the behaviors are still members of the same response class
What does it mean to shape behaviors within response topographies?
The topography of the behavior remains the same. It is another measurable dimension of behavior that is changed (i.e duration)
How many number of approximations should occur at each level of shaping?
Not too many, if so then it might become too established.
During shaping, what do you do when you've reached the full target behavior?
Continue to reinforce! Stopping may cause a loss in one or more of the steps
What is a behavior chain?
A specific sequence of discrete responses in which each response serve as an individual component.
What is a terminal outcome?
When each individual component are linked together.
Each response in a behavior change produces a stimulus that simulatenously functions as what two things?
Conditioned reinforcer and Sd for the next behavior
In a behavior chain, which TWO behaviors DO NOT function as conditioned reinforcer and Sd?
The first and last behavior
what are three important guidelines for behavior changes?
1- the behaviors must be discrete (having a clear beginning and end)
2- They must create a change in environment, enough that acts as a reinforcer
3. the behaviors must be completed in a specific order, usually also in quick succession
What is a behavior chain with a LH?
A behavior chain that must be done in a certain amount of time
What is the difference between a behavior chain and chaining?
Behavior chain is a specific set of behaviors that lead to reinforcement. Chaining is where you link specific behaviors together to make a new performance
What are three methods of determining the steps in an TA
1- Do the task yourself
2- Consult with an expert on the skill
3- Observe a competent person conduct the skill
How do you begin chaining steps?
1- create and confirm the TA
2- Assess baseline level of mastered steps
3- Conduct the Behavior chain
What are two ways to assess baseline of mastered steps in a task analysis?
1. single opportunity Method
2. Multiple opportunity method
What is a single opportunity method of assessing baseline for a TA?
Assess an individual's ability to perform each behavior in the correct sequence. When they score a minus, all behaviors that follow are also a minus and the assessment stops.
What is a multiple opportunity method of assessing baseline for a TA?
Looks at the level of mastery across all behaviors in a ta. If a behavior is incorrect, the BA helps the client do that behavior and moves on.
What is a risk of Multiple opportunity method of assessing baseline for TA?
The client can learn during the assessment
What are four types of chaining methods?
backwards, forwards, total task presentation and backward with leaps ahead
What is forward chaining?
Train the steps in naturally occurring order. The first step is taught until mastery and then the second step is introduced into teaching, etc.
Total Task Chaining is AKA
total task presentation, whole task method, concurrent chaining
What is total task chaining?
The entire chain is taught at once
What is backward chaining?
The chain is taught backwards- with the first step taught being the last step in the chain.
What are some advantages of backwards chaining?
Each time, the client gets the terminal reinforcement.
What are some disadvantages of backwards chaining?
The client could be passive in the earlier steps, and it can slow down the learning process.
What is backward chaining with leap ahead?
It is the same as backwards chaining, but not every step in the TA is trained. Some steps are simply probed. This means that the client can leap ahead and it can decrease the total teaching time.
Interrupting a behavior chain is AKA
unchaining, disrupting a chain, unlinking a chain
What does it mean to interrupt a behavior chain?
Method that lessens behavior by unlinking one element of the chain from the next so that that link no longer serves as an Sd for the next one.
Can Behavior chain interruption occur with just unwanted behaviors?
No. Desirable ones as well.
How do you break an undesirable chain?
Rexamine the Sd and response, Determine if similar Sd's cue different responses, analyze the natural setting to look at relevant Sds, Do Sd's differ from trained to NET?, Identify presence of Sd in natural environment
What are 5 factors that effect performance pf a behavior chain?
1. completeness of the TA- is it completed correctly
2. How long or complicated is it?
3. Schedule of Reinforcement
4. Stimulus variation- introducing all variations of Sd
5. Response variation
What are six types of differential reinforcement?
What is a DRI?
Behavior cannot be emitted at the same time as challenging behavior. The behavior being reinforced and the behavior being extinguished must be mutually exclusive response classes.
What is DRA?
Reinforcing an occurence of alternative behavior to that of the challenging behavior. They are NOT incompatible, but are part of the same response class.
What is differential negative reinforcement of incompatible or alternative behavior?
The term used if escape is the main reinforcer.
DRO is AKA:
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding, Omission Training
Reinforcement is contingent on the absence of challenging behavior. R+ is received when the problem behavior has not been seen during a certain period of time.
What are 2 main subtypes of DRO?
Interval and Momentary
Interval DRO is AKA
What is a Interval DRO?
Where R+ is given following an interval of time without the problem bx
What are two types of Interval DROs?
Fixed and Ratio
What is a Momentary DRO?
R+ is given if the problem bx is not occuring AT THE END of the interval. Ie. beeper goes off, is the bx happening? NO? R+
What are two sub categories of DRO M?
Fixed and Ratio
What are some ethical considerations when using a DRO?
Other behaviors (unwanted) Could be reinforced.
what are two subtypes of DRH? Label and define
Full session- R+ delivered at end of session IF during the whole session, the bx was at or above criteria.
Interval: R+ at the end of each interval
What is the difference between DRL and DRD?
DRD gives R+ when the behavior is at or below criteria.
DRL gives R+ if a certain amount of time has gone by without the behavior occuring. Uses IRT
Neither eliminates the behavior completely
What are some limitations of DRH, DRL and DRD?
Takes time to implement- not to be used for BX that needs speedy process.
Which Differential Reinforcement is the only one to provide reinforcement immediately after a response?
DRL, because it's based on IRT.
What are some examples of AAC?
Pecs, voice output, sign language
What should you consider when choosing an AAC method?
What will the audience understand?
What type of effort is required?
Antecedent Interventions are AKA:
Antecedent procedures, antecedent control, antecedent manipulations
What are two explanations for the function of antecedent stimuli?
Contingency Dependent (aka antecedent control): strategy that alters stimulus control, the antecedent is dependent on the consequences of bx
Contingency Independent: (aka antecedent intervention): The antecedent is NOT dependent on the consequence. The antecedent itself effects behavior.
What are three types of antecedent interventions?
NCR, functional communication training, H Probability sequence
What is NCR?
The R+ is not contingent on anything, but rather given at intervals of time. I.e. every 10 seconds.
What are three procedures that NCR utilizes?
positive R, Negative R and automatic R
What are some advantages of NCR?
Easy to implement, makes a positive learning environment,
What are some disadvantages of NCR?
R+ are free so it might decrease motivation to work for that R+ later, there is a chance you could R+ a negative behavior, it doesn't teach a new bx
High probability Request Sequence is AKA
interspersed requests, pre-task request, Behavioral Momentum
What is High P?
A method to increase the probability that a low P behavior will ocur by presenting known stimuli (High P) before the Low P task.
Functional Communication Training was created by who?
Carr and Durrand
What id FCT?
A strategy to teach functional ways to communicate, which competes with challenging behavior evoked by EO's
What is the first step in FCT?
Assess function of the behavior
Contingency contracting is AKA
Token Economy is AKA?
Token effectiveness depends on what
the power of the backup reinforcer
What are three types of group contingencies?
Dependent, Independent and Interdependent
Dependent Group Contingency is AKA
What is a Dependent Group Contingency?
The groups R+ is dependent on the behavior of an individual or small group
Ethically, what should you consider when using the hero procedure?
Make sure that the individual can, in fact, accomplish the task. Do not set someone up for failure.
What is an independent group contingency?
Everyone in a group is offered the contingency, but only the individuals who meet criteria get R+
What is an interdependent group contingency?
In order to get R+, ALL members of a group must meet criteria.
Antecedent- Based self management skills are AKA:
environmental planning, situational inducement
What are antecedent based self management skills?
manipulating MO's (i.e. eating before you go grocery shopping), providing response prompts, performing initial steps in behavior chains, removing materials required for undesired bx, limited undesired Bx to strict stimulus conditions, dedicating certain environments for bx
Self Monitoring is AKA:
self recording, self observation
What are other types of self management tactics?
self instruction, Habit Reversal (doing something else), self direct systematic desensitization, massed practice
Prompts are ________ antecedent stimuli
What is a response prompt?
act on the response itself, not the atecedent
What are three types of response prompts?
verbal, modeling, physical prompting
What are stimulus prompts?
act on the antecedent.
What are three types of stimulus prompts?
Movement (touch, point, tap)
Position (correct answer is closer, etc.)
Redundancy (Dimension of stimulus paired with correct response)
What are four ways to decrease prompts?
Most to least, least to most, graduated guidance, delayed prompting
Delayed Prompting is AKA
time delayed prompting, delyaed cuing, progressive Delay
What are two ways to remove stimulus prompts?
fade and shape
Discrete trial training is AKA
Restricted Operant, Controlled Operant, DTT
Who founded DTT?
What are the five compents of DTT?
Sd, prompt, response, R+, ITI
What are the four different ways to introduce a target in DTT?
Mass Trial: Introducing all of the same target
Block: Blocks of a target (i.e. car, car, bike, bike)
Expanded: adding distracters in between Sd's that are being taught (the distractors are mastered)
Random: any random SD within a set of mastered items
Incidental teaching is AKA
in situ, natrualistic, non intensive