Flashcards in PTBE Functional Knowledge Deck (75):
What two important events happened in 1968 that we're groundbreaking for the ABA field?
JABA was created.
Baer, Wolf and Risley released their article "some current dimensions of applied behavioral analysis". It defined criteria for ABA.
What are the 7 defining characteristics of ABA, as described by Baer , wolf and Risley?
What are the three levels of scientific knowledge?
Description, prediction and control
What is the highest level of scientific understanding?
What are the six attitudes of science?
Determinism, parsimony, philosophic doubt, experimentation, replication and empiricism
Regarding attitudes of science, what is the most important rule?
Empiricism- being objective in your observations
What are the three branches of behavior?
Behaviorism, experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis
What is an example of a hypothetical construct?
Free will, drive, cognitive process
What is the primary unit of analysis?
The three-term contingency
What is Watsonian Behaviorism?
Behavior that is focused on observable events. Also known as stimulus-response.
The "Behavior of Organisms" began which branch of behavior analysis?
"The behavior of organisms" discussed what two types of behavior?
Operant and respondent
Respondent behavior is also known as___________.
Respondent behavior is illustrated in who's work?
Are elicited by stimuli that immediately preceded them, involuntary, occur whenever the eliciting stimulus is present.
Is shaped through changes in stimulus that immediately follow it, aka 3 term contingency, aka SRS model, influenced by stimulus changes that have followed in the past.
Mentalism relies on....
Hypothetical constructs and explanatory fictions.
Respondent behavior is due to _______ history
Phylogeny or phylogenic
What is habituation?
When the eliciting stimulus is presented repeatedly over a short amount of time the strength of the respondent behavior diminishes
Operant behavior is due to __________ history
Ontogeny or ontogenic
Applied means that we are targeting socially significant behaviors and it applies to life
When the experiment has illustrated a functional relation
the behavior in question is the one that needs to be changed. It needs to be measurable
Details are provided in a way that the process could be replicated
Define conceptually systematic....
Procedures relate to basic behavior principles and are effective (comes from effective past principles)
something that lasts over time, can it be generalized?
Radical Behaviorism is associated with what model?
S-R-S, where behavior is controlled and shaped by both antecedents and consquences
Methodological Behaviorism is associated with what model?
S-R, where behavior is elicited by antecedents.
What does Radical Behaviorism say about private thoughts?
That they are thinking to ones self, that private behavior is just like public behavior except that it cannot be seen.
How did traditional psychology differ from Behaviorism?
Behaviorism meant that behavior could be determined and studied based on environmental factors, rather than within the mind.
Applied Behavior Analysis was defined by who?
Baer, Wolf and Risley (1963)
Experimental Analysis of Behavior is characterized by....
What is the difference between a response and behavior?
Behavior is a larger set of responses, where as a response is ONE act of behavior
What is a response class?
A group of behavior that comprise an operant.
What is a stimulus class?
a group of stimuli that have a common effect on the environment
True or False- a Person needs to know what a consequence is to feel it's affects on future behavior?
A child is hand-flapping. You assume that this is automatically maintained. Is this correct?
No! you cannot assume any function. Hand flapping could be maintained by any of the other functions.
How quickly should a reinforcer be given to strengthen the behavior.
between 0-60 seconds.
What are the two types of Negative Reinforcement?
Avoidance and Escape
Which is more common, avoidance or escape?
What are the two types of avoidance?
Discriminated avoidance: there is a signal that warns you to avoid the situation
Free Operant Avoidance: No warning
Are threats considered punishment?
No! Threats simply create an MO in which alternative behaviors are more motivating
What are two types of Overcorrection?
Restitutional: repair what was done and make it even better on top of that
Positive Practice: complete the task over and over again.
What are some types of negative punishment procedures?
Time out, response cost
What are two types of response costs?
Bonus (taking away extra reinforcers) and Direct Fines (taking away the reinforcers that were already available)
What are two types of time=out?
Non exclusionary and Exclusionary
Is extinction a punishment procedure?
What causes resistance to extinction?
a long history of R+, intermitten R+, High quality R+ or a large amount
What is stimulus control?
When the rate/frequency, etc of a response is altered in the presence of a stimulus
What are some factors that affect stimulus control?
Pre-attending skills, stimulus salience
Stimulus salience is effected by what?
Masking- when another stimulus is stronger than the one one that currently has stimulus control.
Overshadowing: The student cannot learn the behavior because something else is distracting them. A stronger stimulus is overpowering it.
What is the difference between an Sd and an MO
While they both occur before a behavior, MO is something that changes the VALUE of a stimulus as a R+, a response in the presence of an Sd must produce more R+ than without it.
Loose control, the behavior is the same but under different conditions
Stimulus Discrimination Training
tight degree of control, a procedure where responses are reinforced in the presence of one condition and not another.
What are two types of match to sample?
Identity Matching to Sample: where the stimuli are physically identical
Symbolic Match to Sample: Related by not physically alike
What is stimulus equivalence?
Accurate responding to un-trained and non-reinforced stimuli
What is reflexivity?
Reflexivity is A=A
What is Symmetry>?
Symmetry is about reverse... A=B and B=A
What is transitivity?
Transitivity- A=B, B=C and A=C. Even though we never taught the person the last stimulus, the learner makes the jump and learns the stimulus.
What is an equivalence Class?
If all stimuli in a class have formed a reflexive, symmetry and transitivity.
What is rule governed behavior?
A verbal description about a behavior contingency
How is rule-governed behavior reinforced?
Reinforcement is often delayed.
What is a motivating Operation?
an environmental variable that alters the reinforcing effectiveness and/or alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus. `
What are the two types of MO's?
Establishing Operation and Abolishing Operation
What is an Establishing Operation?
An MO that increases the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer.
What are the two types of Establishing Operations?
Value-Altering Effect, Behavior Altering Effect
Describe a Value-Altering Effect
Makes the thing you want SUPER valuable in the moment.
Describe a Behavior Altering Effect
Makes your behavior alter so you get the thing you want more often. AKA Evocative effect
What is abolishing operation?
This is an MO that decreases the effectiveness of a stimulus as a R+
Describe function altering effects
These change future behavior. For example, consequent variables (Reinforcement, punishment, etc.)
What is the difference between behavior altering effects and function altering effects?
Behavior altering effects are the CURRENT MOMENT. Function altering effects are all about future behavior.
Do MO's and Sd's have function altering effects or behavior altering effects?
Behavior altering effects- they can abate or evoke responses but they DO NOT alter consequences.
What is a CMO-S?
Conditioned Motivating operation- Surrogate. This means a stimulus has come to have the same value-altering and behavior altering effects as the MO it has accompanied.
It alters the VALUE of CONSEQUENCE under control of MO that is has been paired with. REQUIRES PAIRING!!
What is a CMO-T?
Conditioned Motivating Operation- Transitive. This is when you are more motivated for one stimulus because you need it to access another Reinforcer.