What separation is provided in RVSM airspace?
1000ft vertical (2000ft vertical separation = standard)
What are the RVSM flight levels in the Fukuoka FIR?
Between FL290 and FL410 AIM-J 517
What letter indicates RVSM capability on the ATS flight plan strip?
“W” indicates that the aircraft is RVSM capable
Level off at the cleared assigned flight level should be achieved to within what tolerance?
A level off should be achieved to within 150ft of the assigned altitude within RVSM airspace
When is a deviation in altitude report required when flying in RVSM airspace?
When any vertical deviation of 300ft or more has occurred. It is not exempted even if a TCAS RA report is submitted separately.
Describe the TCAS phraseology
Complying with TCAS RA - “TCAS RA” Clear of conflict and returning to assigned level - “CLEAR OF CONFLICT, RETURNING TO (assigned clearance)” Clear of conflict and resumed assigned level - “CLEAR OF CONFLICT (assigned clearance) RESUMED” When ATC is in contradiction to TCAS RA - “UNABLE TCAS RA”
How are RNAV ATS routes indicated?
The letter M / Y and Z (z = conditional route) designates the routes on charts & R or Z on the flight plan Fukuoka FIR RNAV 1 / 2 (SID/STAR) RNAV 5 (ENROUTE) RNAV 10 (OCEANIC)
When does the shoulder harness need to be fitted?
A flight crew member shall fit the shoulder harness during take-off and landing, and whenever ordered by the Captain
What information is presented by the ground personnel regarding the flight concerned?
- Weather information - NOTAM - Information regarding the aircraft to be used - Information regarding the flight crew members assigned - Information regarding the passengers and cargo to be loaded - Other information which is necessary to prepare the operational flight plan
By what time is reporting for duty required?
By one hour before the estimated time of departure
When must mutual agreement between the Captain and flight dispatcher be made regarding the operational flight plan?
By 30 minutes prior to the estimated time of departure
In addition to the hand carry articles, what other documents should flight crew-members take with them?
Flight crewmembers shall confirm their hand carry items, and the following documents: - Operational flight plan documents or dispatcher release message - A copy of the ATS flight plan
What are some points that the Captain shall brief the cabin crew on during a crew briefing?
- Outline of the flight (Airports to be used, the route to be flown and the weather to be anticipated) - Allocation of emergency equipment on board the aircraft and their usage - Duty assignment for each crew member in case of emergency - Precautionary measures and measures against hijacking - Duty assignment for each crewmember in the case that flight is conducted with a crew composition other than the regular composition - The type, quantity, loading position of radioactive materials when loaded - Other related items as required
What are some points that the Captain shall brief the flight crew on during a crew briefing?
- The extent of manoeuvring in the case of training and checking - The procedure specified in 8-12 and 8-13 where the co-pilot or second co-pilot manipulates the flight controls
What items shall be briefed to a jump seat passenger?
Actions to be taken in the case of an emergency such as hijack, use of an oxygen mask and a life vest, and particular instructions for using the jump seat
How is preparation of weight and balance conducted?
- If Load Control is available, weight and balance shall be prepared by that system - If Load Control is not available, the Load Controller based on the airport shall prepare weight and balance data. However, of there is no Load Controller stationed at that airport, then the data shall be completed by the flight crew members - The Captain and Load Controller shall check the weight and balance data
What are the 5 checks required by the Captain prior to departure?
The Captain shall check and ensure the following items: - All passengers have completed boarding - Dangerous goods have been loaded in accordance with transport of dangerous goods rules - All exterior doors have been locked - All obstacles except ground equipment necessary for engine start and push back have been removed from the airplane - The seat assignment of passengers is appropriate. This confirmation shall be conducted by the Chief Purser
Who is responsible for aircraft safety during the pushback?
The responsibility is shared as follows: - While being pushed back, the Captain shall be responsible for securing the safety of the aircraft within the scope of their attention - The person in charge of ramp coordination shall be responsible for securing the safety of the airplane in every aspect in close cooperation with the related personnel while the aircraft is under pushback
What is the speed tolerance according to the OM during cruise flight?
When not under radar control, and the average cruising speed differs by more than +/- 5% of the cruising speed specified in the flight plan, the Captain shall report it to ATC
What are some OM requirements regarding oxygen use?
The following OM requirements apply: - The flight crew shall always have their oxygen mask ready for immediate use at 25,000ft or above - If one pilot leaves their seat at or above 25,000ft, the other pilot shall use their oxygen until they come back - At least one pilot shall use oxygen when the aircraft is operated above 41,000ft
When is traffic monitoring required?
Except when attentive traffic monitoring is impossible due to reduced visibility outside the airplane, the pilot’s shall conduct traffic monitoring in order to avoid collision with other aircraft or obstacles
What are the restrictions on VFR?
✈ No VFR at night ✈ No VFR above 20,000ft ✈ No “VMC on top” operation shall be conducted
Who conducts the pre-flight security check on a passenger airplane?
The cabin attendants shall perform the cabin security inspections and report to the Captain that the inspections are completed. When no cabin attendants are carried in cases such as ferry flights, the flight crew shall check the cabin
What are the required hand carry articles for the flight crew: (8)
A flight crewmember shall carry the following articles with them when on flight duty: - Operations manual (Captain only) - Competence Certificate (Licence) - Aviation Medical Certificate (as well as specified items required with the certificate such as correcting lenses) - Radio operating licence - Documents necessary for CIQ (if engaging in international operations) - Route manual (only pertinent pages) - Aeronautical maps (only pertinent maps) - Flash light
What are the documents to be carried that are required by other countries or other authorities?
Every airplane shall carry the appropriate documents when it is flown into the following destinations: - Civil Aircraft Landing Permit (USAF airports only) - Emergency response guidance for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goods (USA airports only) - Noise documents (all foreign airports)
What are the documents to be carried that are required by the company?
These documents are required by the company for operational convenience. A missing document shall be replaced at the airport where its replacement is possible. Until replaced, the crewmembers may use the Airplane Operations Manual or the alternative information from ground personnel or operations. Flight without any of the following is NOT restricted: - Air Operator Certificate (copy) - FPDM (including take-off and landing weight table) - Normal checklist - Handy speed book - Landing distance table
What are the Captain’s obligations if the sealed certification holder is found to be unsealed?
The Captain shall check whether the seal is broken or not. When the seal is broken, then Captain shall check each document in the certification holder and report it to ANA maintenance personnel. The aircraft many depart if all documents are present. AOC, Designation of Operating Limitations, Air Worthiness Certificate, Radio License, Emergency documents, Registration Certificate + 2 x Fuel Cards
When the seat belt sign is turned on, what are the cabin attendant’s actions?
Cabin attendants shall sit after conducting minimum safety measures. The cabin attendants shall request that passengers to keep their seatbelts fastened by an announcement
Should the Captain make a PA regarding turbulence?
The Captain shall make an announcement to provide information about the turbulence (time, level, duration etc.). When any turbulence is expected the Captain or cabin attendants shall inform passengers about the turbulence PRIOR to turning on the seatbelt sign
What company communication measures are to be taken by the Captain after encountering turbulence?
Turbulence encountered during flight shall be reported through the company radio and at the post flight briefing
Is manoeuvring for a TCAS TA recommended?
The pilot shall not manoeuver their airplane in response to a TA only, without any visual acquisition with conflicting aircraft
When is the critical phase?
Departure phase: Between block out to 5 minutes after take-off Arrival phase: Between the signal of about 10 minutes prior to landing, and block in
What are some of the required procedures for flight crew during the critical phase?
The following procedures apply during the critical phase: - Except for emergency or safety communication, company communication and communication between flight crew members and cabin attendants shall be kept minimal during critical phases such as taxiing, taking off, climbing, descending and landing - The seat belt sign should be kept turned on - Flight crew members should use headsets and boom microphone - No cockpit seat changes shall be made below 10,000ft
What are the forms to be submitted by the Captain after a flight?
Nothing for domestic flights, however for international flights the operational flight plan / dispatcher release note and a copy of the flight plan
When is the alcohol check carried out?
Before starting flight operations duty
What are the 4 operational conditions where the Captain shall report to ground personnel via ACARS or company radio?
The Captain should report the following items as soon as practical to ground personnel as well as ATC: 1. An emergency or distress situation, witnessing of an accident, or receiving a distress and urgency communication 2. Encountering a near collision with another airplane etc. 3. Observing any unreliability of an air navigation facility during operations 4. Any other event the pilot recognises as an event necessary to report
What are the 7 cabin conditions where the Captain shall report to ground personnel via ACARS or company radio?
The Captain shall report the following items as soon as practical to ground personnel in order to receive smooth support on the ground when reported by a cabin attendant: 1. Injury or possible injury caused by flight operations such as turbulence 2. Possible infectious disease 3. Sudden illness 4. Possible food poisoning or passenger illness caused by in-flight meals or multiple findings of spoiled ingredients which have already been served to multiple passengers 5. Passenger injury caused by destructive insects or animals or finding of such 6. Occurrence of an event which may possibly lead to a cabin emergency creating anxiety among passengers such as a sound, smell, spark or flame, smoke, impact, unusual vibration, oxygen masks dropping from multiple units etc. 7. The finding of restricted carry-on items
Can a person other than a crewmember occupy a control seat?
Flight crewmembers shall never have persons other than flight crewmembers seated on the pilot’s seat on the cockpit except in an emergency situation, in the case that it is judged to be necessary for safety of operations
Does the completion of the cabin preparations need to be made before entering the runway?
The completion of pre-flight preparation of the cabin should be reported before entering into the active runway, except in the following cases where flight crewmembers may receive the report before the beginning of the take-off: - Where the airplane needs to taxi down (back track) on the active runway at an airport without parallel runways - ATC approves entry into the active runway in spite of conveying that pre-flight preparation is not yet completed
Disagreement over the operational flight plan between the Captain and Flight Dispatcher, which option shall be taken?
The safer option shall be adopted
When does the operational flight plan become “company clearance”?
Company clearance shall become effective when the Captain and Flight Dispatcher approve the operational flight plan
What items of the company clearance do the Captain and Flight Dispatcher need to consult each other before changing?
- Destination airport - Alternate airport - Required fuel on board - Route - Altitude (except where revised data is shown in the flight plan and no additional fuel is required) - Flight rules
Can the Captain change the company clearance during flight without consulting the Flight Dispatcher?
Yes, provided that this change does not seriously affect fuel planning and flight watch duties
If the destination airport is closed temporarily (perhaps due to a disabled aircraft / security threat / etc.), can the aircraft continue towards the destination?
Yes, after considering the weather conditions at the airport concerned, the flight time to the destination, and the amount of fuel remaining. If it is anticipated that the safety of the flight will be interfered with, the destination shall be changed
What is the definition of a “Regular Airport”?
A regular airport is an airport based on the approved business plan, regularly used for departure and arrivals
What is the definition of an “Other Designated Airport”?
An “other designated airport” is an airport used as an alternate airport, or a fuel supply airport. These airports are selected based on consideration given to facilities, support, maintenance and ground handling etc.
What is the definition of an “Adequate Airport”?
These airports concern operations for two-engine ETOPS aircraft. These airports are selected based on consideration given to available landing runways, ATC services, lighting and communication facilities, weather services, navigational aids and fire fighting systems
What is the definition of “burn off fuel”?
The amount of fuel required to fly from take-off at the departure airport to landing at the destination airport
What is the definition of “alternate fuel”, and how is it calculated?
The amount of fuel required flying to, and landing at the alternate airport following a go-around at the departure airport. If 2 or more alternate airports are selected, the most distant airport will be used in calculations. It is calculated at the weight after burn off fuel and contingency fuel have been deducted from the take-off weight, or the estimated weight at the go-around (re-clear) fix. Cruise fuel to the alternate is based on the AOM
Is contingency fuel assumed to be used in fuel planning?
Yes, in planning it’s assumed to be consumed by the time the aircraft lands at the destination. In calculating allowable landing weight however, it is not considered to be used
What is PCF, and how is it calculated?
Planned contingency fuel (PCF) is fuel that the company specifies for various routes and airports that can cause increased fuel burn, based on statistical results. The amount is specified in the route manual. For planning, it is calculated at estimated landing weight at the destination at 1500ft. Captain can decide that PCF not necessary.
What is contingency fuel, and how is it calculated?
Contingency fuel caters for fuel increase due to variations in wind, temperature, flight level, performance and the use of anti-ice etc. Contingency fuel is 5% of burn-off fuel, or 15 minutes holding at 1500ft in ISA conditions, whichever is greater. It is calculated at the estimated landing weight at the destination
How is reserve fuel calculated, and at what aircraft weight?
It is 30 minutes holding at 1500ft in ISA conditions. If an alternate is selected, it is calculated at the estimated landing weight at the ALTERNATE airport
What is the minimum required fuel on board?
No aircraft may dispatch without the minimum amount of fuel on board. The minimum fuel by law is: - Burn-off - Contingency - Alternate - Reserve
How much clearance from obstacles is required during a drift down procedure?
With one engine inoperative, the aircraft must clear all obstacles within 5nm either side of track by 2000ft
When is take-off permitted around sunset with no runway lighting?
Take-off needs to be conducted between 10 minutes before sunset to 20 minutes after sunset. When take-off is made within this 30-minute period, an alternate airport for the departure airport needs to be nominated
When is landing permitted around sunset on a runway with no lighting?
Landing shall be made at least 20 minutes before sunset, but at no time after sunset
When is take-off permitted around sunrise on a runway with no runway lighting?
If an obstructions check has been completed, take-off is permitted 20 minutes before sunrise
What is the definition of a “provisional airport”?
A provisional airport is used in the same manner as a regular airport, when that regular airport becomes unserviceable due to closure or strike. There are no nominated provisional airports listed for AJX 767 operations
What is the definition of a “refuelling airport”?
A refuelling airport is an airport where an aircraft may refuel without the loading and unloading of passengers or cargo. There are no nominated refuelling airports listed for AJX 767 operations
How is taxi fuel calculated?
At ramp weight
At what aircraft weight is burn-off fuel calculated at?
- Climb fuel = At estimated take-off weight - Cruise fuel = At estimated cruising weight, or the weight at start of cruise, or end of cruise may be used - Descent fuel = At estimated top of descent weight
What is “extra fuel” and how is it calculated?
Extra fuel is the fuel loaded by the Captain or Flight Dispatcher when they consider it necessary for ATC, weather, and fuel loading procedures or any other reason. It is calculated at the estimated landing weight at the destination airport (Extra fuel may also be for MEL/CDL issues.. if a check asks where fuel is accounted for in this case, it is extra fuel)
What is the minimum safe altitude when an MEA is not specified?
When an MEA is not specified, the minimum safe altitude is 2000ft above the highest obstruction within a horizontal distance of 5nm
How is a TEMPO interpreted during flight planning?
When a TEMPO indicates that the weather conditions are forecast to be below the company minima, the TEMPO shall be regarded as being ABOVE the minima at the stage of planning. This is not the case however if synthetic analysis of all weather data, information and judgement indicate that is really is below the company minima
Can vertical visibility be used as a substitute to ceiling in a forecast?
When vertical visibility is reported instead of cloud conditions, the value of vertical visibility can be used as the height of the ceiling
Can QNH be used from a “METAR AUTO”?
No. Only use QNH reported by an ATC unit. “METAR AUTO” QNH is not reported to ATC units
Should the information contained within a “METAR AUTO” be used for determining company minima?
No. Use the reported METAR AUTO as material for synthetic planning and preparation of the flight plan, and not for judgement of the company minima (The exception to this is Kadena – METAR AUTO from Kadena may be used)
When is self-contained navigation required?
When flying over areas where no navaids or landmarks can be effectively used for a distance of more than 300nm (550km)
At what points of flight is a confirmation of fuel remaining required?
The fuel check shall be performed during the flight at the following timing: - An appropriate waypoint after reaching the cruise altitude - During cruise, at about every hour - A waypoint around the end of cruise
What are the Captain’s responsibilities regarding checking weather and fuel approaching top of descent?
Approaching top of descent, the Captain shall check the weather at the destination and the alternate airports. The Captain shall also determine whether an approach to the destination can be made or not, as well as the amount of fuel to cope with contingencies such as go-around, detour or delay instructed by ATC
When must the Captain declare an emergency with low fuel?
The Captain shall declare an emergency and request an ATC priority for landing when the estimated fuel on landing is expected to be less than 30 minutes holding fuel
What procedure is required on climb to cruising level following a communications failure?
Continue the climb to the assigned altitude or MEA, whichever is higher. In a radar environment, 7 minutes after the transponder has been set to 7600, or 7 minutes at MEA, continue climb to the filed cruising altitude. Or, 20 minutes after a compulsory reporting point is NOT reported, climb to the filed altitude
If the ceiling is reported as being below the landing minima, but the reported visibility is above the landing minima, does a departure alternate airport need to be nominated?
No. Even when the ceiling is reported to be below the DH/MDH it can be treated as being above landing minima as long as enough visual reference is available. The reported ground visibility should be judged to be above landing minima
What is the law and regulation reference for the confirmation of departure?
- Aviation law 73-2 - Aviation regulation 164-14 Civil aeronautics law pages 43 / 201
How many IRS’s are required at dispatch?
2 sets of IRS’s are requires for self contained navigation at the time of departure (also sole means 18 hrs)
What is the definition of “critical DME”?
✈ When a DME is unserviceable, it causes a hinderance for DME/DME based operations (RNAV1/2) ✈ If unserviceable, the max DME gap is 14nm. If 14nm or > RNAV 1 and 2 operations are not available.
What is the definition of “DME gap”?
DME gap is a segment on the route where the combination of DME signals do not meet the navigational accuracy required
What is the definition of RNAV 1?
Where the required navigation accuracy is equal or better than 1nm for 95% of the total flight time
What is P-RNAV?
P-RNAV is the European equivalent of RNAV 1, so accurate to within 1nm for 95% of the total flight time
What is the required equipment for RNAV operations?
✈ Equipment RNAV 1/2 = FMS + DME + IRS + GPS
✈ Equipment RNAV 5 = FMS + DME + IRS + GPS + VOR
✈ Equipment RNAV 10 = FMS + 2 IRS + GPS
What are the primary navigation sensors for RNAV operations?
- RNAV 1/2 (SID/STAR) DME/DME or DME/DME/IRU or GPS
- RNAV 5 (ENROUTE) DME/DME or VOR/DME INSorIRS/GPS
- RNAV10 (OCEANIC) INSorIRS/GPS
What is the acceptable bearing difference between the database and the chart?
A difference within 3 degrees is acceptable for RNAV 1 operations
For what contingencies should the Captain inform the ATC unit of, when RVSM assigned altitude cannot be maintained?
- Failure of ALL automatic altitude control systems
- When two altimetry systems cannot be maintained
- Failure of ALL transponders
- Loss of thrust on an engine necessitating descent
- Any other equipment failure affecting the ability to maintain assigned altitude (rapid depress / smoke etc.)
- Encountering greater than moderate turbulence
What are the 2 types of precision approach?
ILS approach and PAR approach
What is the definition of a CAT I approach?
A precision approach with a DH not lower than 200ft and an RVR not less than 550m
What is the definition of a CAT II approach?
A precision approach with a DH lower than 200ft, but not lower than 100ft, and an RVR not less than 300m
What is an approach ban?
✈ May not continue the approach past a specified point if weather reported to be below LDG minima
✈ Points are FAF, OM or 1000’ – specified in Route Manual for each approach
✈ The Captain may commence an approach regardless of the weather but must not continue past the point unless weather reported to be above the landing company minima
What is the definition of ceiling?
The height above the ground or water surface of the lowest layer of cloud, that is reported as broken or 5⁄8 or more of the sky below 20,000ft, or that is reported as BKN, OVC, or X
What is the very lowest take-off minima available to the AJX 767?
200m TDZ / 200m MID / 200m END, and LVP must be in use
What is CMV?
✈ It is a value = to RVR & derived from reported visibility
✈ Take visibility and apply factor to get the RVR/CMV value
✈ Can be used for CAT I and NPA straight in only
✈ Not to be used for T/O, ALTN, Circling, CAT II/IIII
✈ Lowest limit CMV = 800m
✈ CMV shown for visibilities > 1600m
What is the minimum RVR for an AJX 767 on a CAT II approach?
What is the minimum company minima for a circling approach?
550MDA and 3200M Visibility
What is the company alternate minima?
It is approach type dependant:
- Circling Approach = 800ft 3600m
- Non precision or APV = 800ft 3000m
- Cat 1 = 600ft 2000m
- Cat 2 = 300ft 1200m
- Cat 3 = 1200m
Can CMV be used at the planning stage from TAF’s and METAR’s?
No, VIS shall not be converted to CMV at the planning stage
What is the minimum length of runway required for a CAT I or CAT II approach with RVR less than 1200m?
The length of the runway shall be 115% or longer than the landing field length, in dry conditions, as specified in the AOM
When can the Captain continue an approach below the MDA on a non-precision approach?
The Captain may continue the approach below when 2 conditions are both satisfied: 1) The airplane is continuously in a position from which a descent to landing on the intended runway can be made at an appropriate rate of descent using normal manoeuvres 2) At least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is visible and identifiable to the flight crew members: Threshold - Runway marking (The numbers / Threshold stripes / Touchdown zone marking) - Approach lighting system, or runway alignment indicator - Runway lighting - Runway threshold lighting, or runway edge lighting - Touchdown zone lighting - Visual guidance slope indicator
When shall the Captain execute a missed approach when below the MDA during a non-precision approach?
The Captain shall execute a missed approach in either of the following 2 cases: 1) When the airplane is judged by the Captain to not be in a position where a continuous descent to landing on the intended runway can be made using as appropriate rate of descent and normal manoeuvres 2) When the airplane is judged by the Captain to not be in a position that an approach and landing can be made safely, due to the loss of visual reference or the reduction in visual reference
When can the Captain commence a circling approach at or above the MDA?
The Captain may initiate a circling approach if at least one of the following visual references, or the runway, or the circling guidance lighting is distinctly visible and identifiable: - Threshold - Runway marking (The numbers / Threshold stripes / Touchdown zone markings) - Approach lighting system, or runway alignment indicator - Runway lighting - Runway threshold lighting, or runway edge lighting - Touchdown zone lighting - Visual guidance slope indicator
What is the maximum crosswind for a CAT I approach with visibility less than 1200m?
What is the approach ban limitation on reported RVR?
The Captain shall execute a missed approach when ANY reported RVR is less than 200m
What are the required ground/air facilities for a CAT I approach?
Ground: ✈ LOC and G/S ✈ Outer marker (Except for a PAR approach, or when another fix is available on the procedure)
Air ✈ Marker Beacon, FD or AP, ILS receiver
What are the required ground facilities for commencing a CAT II approach?
Ground facilities required for a CAT II approach are as follows: - LOC and G/S - Outer marker (except where another fix is available on the procedure) - Approach lighting system - Runway lighting - Runway threshold lighting and runway end lighting - Touchdown zone lighting - Centreline lighting - Touchdown RVR (always) - Midpoint RVR / Stop end RVR (Any shall be in operation. But in the USA, stop end shall be in operation)
If ANY of the above ground equipment becomes inoperative during a CAT II approach, can the approach be continued?
An approach may be conducted until a specific point on the approach ban, regardless of the weather. The ground facilities mentioned above must be available for CAT II approaches. The Captain shall immediately execute a missed approach when ANY of the ground facilities required for CAT II approach becomes inoperative. This applies after commencement of final approach, and before DH
Should descent below MDA be made earlier than necessary during a circling approach?
For keeping obstacle clearance, descent below MDA should not be made earlier than necessary. The Captain should maintain MDA as long as possible during circling. The position to descend below the MDA is normally abeam or after the end of the intended runway end. However, the Captain’s descent plan has precedence over the normal descent position
When can the Captain continue an approach below the DH on a CAT II approach?
The Captain can continue the approach below the DH when the following 2 conditions are met. If either condition is not satisfied, the Captain must execute a missed approach: 1) When the airplane is judged by the Captain to be in a position where a continuous descent to landing on the intended runway can be made using an appropriate rate of descent and using normal manoeuvres 2) In addition to the ALS crossbar, runway threshold lighting, or touchdown zone lighting, at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is visible and identifiable: - At least 3 consecutive ALS lights (and the crossbar visible) - Any runway lighting or centreline lighting, or - Touchdown zone lighting
In Japan, what is meant by the phrase “Minimum Fuel”?
The Captain will report “minimum fuel” to ATC when the fuel has reached a stage where little or no unexpected delay can be accepted. It is NOT an emergency situation, and priority will NOT be given by ATC
What is the minimum required visibility for departure when SSP / LVP are NOT in place?
What are some OM considerations following lost communications?
They are as follows: - Maintain a listening watch on the appropriate frequency - Continue flight in accordance with the procedures written in the route manual - If the receiver is still operative, follow ATC instructions as normal - Use the phrase “Transmitting blind” - Consider using HF communication if necessary - Set transponder code 7600
Can the Captain ever land overweight?
In an emergency situation, the Captain may land overweight at their discretion in the interest of safety
How can the tower communicate to an aircraft that has suffered a communications failure?
Some possible light communications are: - Steady green = Cleared to land - Steady red = Give way to other aircraft and continue circling - Flashing red = Do not land - Alternating green and red = Exercise extreme caution
How can an aircraft acknowledge light signals emitted from the control tower during lost communications?
It is day and night dependant: - Day time = Rock the wings - Night time = Flash the landing lights on and off twice
What is the difference in required equipment for the B767 for RNAV 5 operations as opposed to RNAV 1 operations?
RNAV 5 requires the addition of a VOR
Is it permissible to operate in class G airspace?
Except in an unavoidable situation such as emergency, IFR operations in class G shall not be conducted. The following are exempted: - United States Military airspace - Special procedures established in the route manual
Can an approach be continued past the VDP if no visual reference has been established?
Whether to commence a missed approach after passing the VDP depends on the Captain’s discretion
Can the flight crew hand fly an RNAV 1 departure or arrival without engaging the autopilot?
Yes – if FD mode with LNAV otherwise HDG SEL & AP.
Can a flight be planned to an airport with only a GPS stand-alone approach?
Flights based on a GPS stand-alone approach may be planned when ALL of the following requirements are met: - RAIM prediction must be available - At least one instrument approach procedure without depending on GPS equipment shall be available at an alternate airport if selected, or at the destination if an alternate airport is not selected - In the case of selecting a take-off alternate or enroute alternate, at least one approach shall be available that is not dependant upon GPS
What types of actions are known as “behaviour impeding aircraft safety”?
Per aviation law 164-15: - Tampering with the passenger door or emergency exit without proper reason - Smoking in the lavatory - Disturbing any person to perform their duty on-board - Operating a mobile phone or other electric device which harms the safety of the aircraft - Not wearing a seatbelt during take-off or landing or when instructed by the Captain - During take-off or landing, not placing the seat back, table or footrest in position - Leaving baggage in the aisle or other area where it could disturb an emergency evacuation - Operating, transferring or malfunctioning of the emergency device or emergency equipment
When may the Captain restrain a passenger?
The Captain may from the moment when ALL external doors are closed for take-off until the moment any door is opened for disembarkation after landing adopt measures to restrain a person if he has reasonable grounds to believe that any person on board an aircraft may impede safety or is about to commit such acts
When must the Captain order an evacuation according to Civil Aeronautics Law?
In the event of danger, or when in their opinion danger is imminent, the Captain must order the passengers to evacuate
May the Captain deviate from an ATC clearance in the event of an emergency?
In an emergency requiring immediate action, it may be difficult to comply with an ATC instruction in order to cope with an emergency. If the Captain must deviate from the provisions of an ATC clearance, the Captain shall promptly notify ATC
How has the non-normal landing distance performance data been calculated?
The following basic assumptions are made:
- Threshold speed = BUG + 5
- Touchdown point = 1250ft
- Braking = Full manual braking (except for anti-skid inop, or when exceeding brake energy limits)
- Temperature = 30 degrees (dry and wet) or 0 degrees (snow / ice / slush)
- Pressure altitude = Sea level
What level of reverse thrust is used for non-normal landing distance calculations?
The following conditions are taken into account: - If both reversers are available, they remain at 85% N1 until 70kts - If one reverser is available, it remains set at idle reverse - If neither reverser is available, both engines remain set at forward idle
When is an alternate airport not required pre-flight?
- If flight time < 6 hours & for at least 1 hour before and 1 hour after ETA conditions indicate
- CIG 2000 or MDA + 1,500’
- VIS 5000m or MIN + VIS 3200m
- And 2 hours reserve fuel carried (Preflight requirement, 2 hours cruise fuel)
Pre-flight, when are 2 alternate airports required?
When the weather conditions at the destination airport are forecast to be below the landing minima intermittently at the ETA, at least 2 alternates shall be selected. However, if the forecast CIG and VIS indicates at or above 1500ft and 5000m at the estimated time of arrival of the alternate airport, then other alternate airport is not required
How many individual altimeter checks are required prior to and during RVSM operations?
There are 3 separate checks that need to be made on the altimeters. They are as follows: - On the ground, the maximum difference between the Captain and Co-pilot altimeters is 40ft - On the ground, the maximum difference between the Captain / Co-pilot altimeter and field elevation is 75ft - In the air, the maximum allowable difference between the Captain and Co-pilot altimeters is 200ft
What is the limitation regarding monitoring of raw data during a VOR approach with single FMC operation?
One pilot must have raw data from the associated VOR displayed on the RDMI or HSI in the VOR mode, no later than the final approach fix
If given a landing clearance and the wind value increases above the limit, can the landing be continued?
Yes, if the crew judges that the aircraft can land safely.
✈ ECON climb – most economical weight based on TOW and CI 73 = 250/290/0.78
✈ Max Angle climb – max climb gradient, use flaps up manoeuvring speed/0.77
✈ Max Rate climb – reach cruise AT in minimum time, use flaps up manoeuvring speed +50
✈ High speed climb – used to shorten Block time, use 250/350/0.83
✈ ECON cruise – most economical and functional speed based on CI 73 = 290/0.78
✈ LRC – minimizes BOF, 99% of max range fuel mileage obtained
✈ High speed cruise – used to shorten block time; use 350/0.83
✈ ECON descent – most economical based on CI 73, uses 0.78/290/250
The relative power relationship between crewmembers in the cockpit; not too steep a gradient is most effective, where the Captain still has command and leads the operation and F/O not too overridden or too commanding.
Areas of Responsibility:
￼￼￼￼￼￼✈ PF – MCP, Alternate stab trim, parking brake, speed brake, ✈ PM – overhead panel, stab trim cut out, FCS, fire switches, CANCEL/RECALL switches ✈ Other items are based on position convenience and accessibility
Describe the lost communications procedures – Departure, Enroute, Arrival
✈ Route Manual Basic
✈ Listening watch; if receiving ATC instruction, follow them; follow RMB procedures; use the phrase TRANSMITTING BLIND; use HF if available; SQ 7600
✈ VMC = remain VMC and land at nearest suitable
✈ IFR and above is not practicable or in IMC ￼￼ Climb/Descent = Last assigned or MEA (higher of) until 7 mins (RADAR) following time reached that altitude or set SQ7600 (later of); 20 mins (not RADAR) following failure to report at compulsory reporting point.
ROUTE = Proceed on cleared route to last point over destination or commencement point of approach; Radar Vectors
APPROACH HOLDING = Proceed to fix instructed as last point of RV or nearest fix towards destination on planned route/last assigned route. = commence descent from last point over destination without delay if clearance was received, or at EAT, or ETA last reported to ATC, or when total EET from T/O reached for destination. = if received instructions to hold before failure, commence descent for approach after holding until EAT, or EFCT, or EET from T/O reached for destination
What is the relationship between tailwind and pitch angle on final approach?
✈ 5kts of tailwind = 1* reduction in pitch attitude.
Discuss RTO policy and high/low speed RTO
“Except for the occurrence of a hindrance where there is a serious doubt that the airplane can safely fly, it is safer to continue the takeoff than to reject it from a point near V1” – Go Mindedness has become Company Policy. It is left to the Captain’s best judgement Other factors to consider... 1. Malfunction that would render airplane unable to fly might be engine failure with thrust loss 2. For other malfunctions in the vicinity of V1, it is safer to continue. Even for EGT exceedance or engine fire, it would be safer to continue, provided there was no loss of thrust. Any system associated with braking like anti-skid or tire failure is extremely dangerous re RTO. 3. High speed regime > 80kts. Autobrakes OK, no need to disconnect autothrottle. 4. Low speed regime 30m width, RORS = 60m), runway markings, runway distance markings on the side
Captain’s Duties Prior to Flight?
✈ Prior to flight (Moderate Weather Will Cause Safety Quams, Read the Flight plan Carefully) + Jumpseat
- Mental and physical fitness of all crew (ANA)
- Weather & NOTAMS
- Weight and balance
- Condition of aircraft and equipment
- Safety of loading
- Quantity and quality of fuel and lubricants
- Required documents
- Flight plan
- Crew briefing (ANA)
- Jumpseat Brief (ANA)
Captain's duties inflight?
✈ In-flight (Alternate No Dice if Reduced Conditions) ￼
1. Adhere to rules and procedures
2. Normally manipulate controls from the left seat
3. Direct and supervise all crew
4. Revise Company clearance if required
5. Comply with OM regarding assisting other aircraft in distress
Captains duties post flight?
✈ Post flight (Submit Documents that Company Needs)
1. Submit any required reports
2. Direct crew and pax for CIQ if required
3. Conduct crew de-briefing
4. Notify maintenance if required
✈ Full responsibilities during flight; flight = Departure time to Arrival time ✈ From all doors closed for departure to any door open for disembarkation, ✈ The Captain may take measures to restrain a person if necessary (Full Responsibility to Direct May Not Ensure People Will Respond); ✈ Full and final responsibility for safety of flight; ✈ Responsibility of all POB and cargo; ✈ Direct and supervise all crew; ✈ May delegate duties; ✈ Not leave for rest unless Dep Captain relieves; ✈ Ensure a pilot qualifies for airport in seat for T/O or LDG; ✈ Present on flight deck for T/O and LDG; ✈ When leaving flight deck, brief and handover; ✈ Retain flight logbook and Gen Dec
Initial T/O pitch both normal and single engine:
✈ Normal Techniques; Maneuvers ✈ Normal T/O = Rotation is 3° /second to 19° pitch attitude (280.0T, TO2) ✈ Single Engine T/O = Rotation is slightly less at 1.5-2.5° / second to 12.5° pitch attitude ✈ With a T/W this pitch would slightly reduce ✈ Normal G/A pitch = 15°, then level off F5 = 4.5° / 63% N1 ✈ Single engine G/A = 2.5°, then level off F1 = 6° / 80% N1
Does Approach Ban apply to crosswind exceedence
✈ No, it applies to limits in OM regarding 500’ point
Describe block out/block in/flight
✈ Departure (Block Out)– a/c first moves from specified position for T/O ✈ Arrival (Block In) – a/c comes to a specified position at the end of flight ✈ Flight – total operation from Departure to Arrival
Weight Limit by Tire Speed Limit and Brake Energy Limit:
✈ For C2B2, limits not required to be checked unless CDL and MEL are applied as these limits will not become restrictive under most stringent conditions
✈ For C2B6, required to check the limits when flight plans are made as follows and when CDL and MEL apply – when airport pressure ALT at or below 2000’, TOW at or above 310.0 (T/W > 5kts) etc; when airport pressure ALT above 2000’, TOW at or above 280.0 (T/W > 5kts) etc
✈ Brake energy limit more restrictive than tire speed limit
Climb Performance Requirements
￼✈ Approach Climb = 2.1%; critical engine inop, L/G up, approach flaps, G/A thrust on remaining engine & speed not > 1.4 x VS1G
✈ Landing Climb = 3.2%; all engines operating, L/G down, LDG flaps, speed not < 1
WX requirement for flight to be conducted:
✈ DEP wx must be at or > T/O minima ✈ DEST wx must be at or > LDG minima ✈ ALTN wx must be at or > ALTN minima ✈ Planning minima for T/O ALTN = CAT II/III approach available – RVR/VIS CAT II/III minima; CAT I approach available – RVR/VIS CAT I minima; NPA available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for NPA; CIRC available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for circling ✈ Planning minima for DEST ALTN = CAT II/III approach available – CAT I minima; CAT I approach available - MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for NPA; NPA available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’ +200’, VIS for NPA + 1000m; CIRC available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for circling
Destination Alternate requirements preflight?
Preflight ✈ 1 x alternate required in principle; ✈ 2 x alternates required if DEST weather forecast intermittently < LDG minima at ETA ✈ Unless...ALTN weather CIG > 1500’ and VIS > 5000m at ETA - then only require 1 ALTN
Destination requirements inflight?
Inflight - Destination ✈ If DEST weather forecast < LDG minima at ETA... ￼￼￼ - Require additional ALTN to continue towards DEST - If additional ALTN can’t be selected & weather not forecast to improve at DEST, must change DEST. - Not applicable if... ￼￼￼ 1) Able to HOLD until weather forecast to improve at DEST or, 2) The ALTN weather at ETA indicates CIG > 1500’ and VIS > 5000m or, 3) The aircraft diverts to the ALTN
Alternate requirements inflight?
✈ If ALTN weather forecast < ALTN minima... - Select a new ALTN; or - Don’t continue to DEST unless ￼￼ 1) CIG > 2000’ or DH/MDH + 1500’ and 2) VIS > 5000m or RVR/VIS + or 3200m and 3) Flight time < 6 hours; - If neither options available - must change DEST (if ALTN can’t be selected without change to destination due fuel)
Inflight requirements – Destination + Alternate
✈ If both DEST and ALTN below company minima, select new DEST with new ALTN
Inflight – Other
✈ If DEST closed temporarily, may continue taking consideration weather and fuel remaining until reopened. - If safety may be interferred with, destinaton shall be changed; ✈ When safety of flight will be inteferred with by CB’s, turbulence or NAV facilities, change route
T/O Alternate requirements:
✈ If DEP wx < LDG minima (with RVR at least 200m) or unable to return due curfew, require a T/O alternate ✈ To be within 1 hour, OEI cruise speed (424nm); (if destination within this distance then T/O ALTN not required) ✈ If the CIG reported < LDG minima but a/c has landed, can assume CIG > minima; RVR/VIS must still be > LDG minima ✈ The T/O ALTN weather must be at or > the ALTN minima specified in route manual
Minimum weather requirements:
￼✈ T/O With T/O ALTN: with SSP/LVP (HIRL + CL) = 200/200/200 RVR, CIG 0’; ￼SSP/LVP not in use = VIS 400m, CIG 0’ ￼Without T/O ALTN = LDG minima (RVR must be >200m) Shimojishima = 300/300 (no midpoint RVR) ✈ LDG minima = NPA, CAT I, CAT II, CAT III; CMV not less than 800m ✈ ALTN minima = Precision Approach – 600’/3200m; NPA – 800’/3200m ￼
Use of the Warning Letter:
✈ Applicable for... Category I: Hijacking/damaging aircraft or violence to crew/passengers/damage to property, and Category III: Smoking in non-smoking area or shouting and making loud noise without reason ✈ CAT I (Captain) = criminal law + punishable, CAT III (Cabin Crew) = aviation law but not punishable ✈ Purpose to tell PAX their behavior is unacceptable; not mandatory to issue if it is considered to worsen the situation; CA can verbally warn after getting Captain’s permission ✈ If do use letter, must advise ground crew and submit an air safety report
Use of the Prohibition Order:
✈ Applicable for... Category II: 1) Leaving baggage causing obstruction 2) Operation of emergency exits 3) Smoking in lavatory 4) Action that interfers with crew that may hinder safety ✈ CAT II (Captain) = punishible by aviation law ✈ Purpose to tell PAX their behavior is unacceptable; not mandatory to issue if it is considered to worsen the situation; CA can verbally warn after getting Captain’s permission ✈ If do use letter, must advise ground crew and submit an air safety report Summary... Both the letter and order is issued by CA’s under Captain’s directive.
Where is SAR facility located in Japan and SAR phases:
￼✈ RMB – Search and Rescue; Haneda Airport ✈ Uncertainty phase, Alert phase, Distress p
What is windshear:
✈ A change in wind speed and/or direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing or shearing effect; sometimes accompanied by turbulence ✈ Indicated by TS, virga, PWS, WSAS ✈ Indication of W/S encounter – WSAS or unacceptable flight path deviations ✈ Unacceptable flight path deviations are conditions in excess of the following below 1000’AGL – 15kts, 5 degrees pitch, 500fpm, 1 dot G/S, unusual thrust lever position for a significant period of time
EICAS STATUS message:
￼✈ Indicate conditions requiring crew awareness for dispatch (MEL items) ✈ Page number indicated below the list if additional messages exist; select STATUS again to display the next page ✈ Status Cue on secondary EICAS indicates new STATUS message exists; removed when STATUS page displayed
ANA STABILIZED APPROACH concept:
✈ OM 3-1-16 ✈ Stabilised with LDG checklist completed by passing 1000’ AFE (500’ for circling approach) ✈ A/C considered stablilised when attitude and position are correct, IAS and sink rate are within limits, thrust is appropriate ✈ If a/c is not stable by 1000’/500’ or becomes unstable below those heights, must G/A ✈ If ATC restriction prevents a/c being stable by 1000’, establish stable approach ASAP ✈ Circling approach, wings to be level by 300’AFE and no excessive maneuvering for correction required
Holding Speeds JAPAN:
✈ NAVAIDS: 0-6000’ = 210kts, >6000-14000’ = 220kts, >14000’ = 240kts; Turbulence = 280/0.80M ✈ Other (DME fix, WPT, intersection): 0-6000’ = 200kts, >6000-14000’ = 230kts (may be restricted to 210kts on chart), >14000’ = 265kts ✈ PANS new criteria: 0-14000 = 230kts, >14000’-20,000’ = 240kts; Turbulence = 280/0.80M; >20,000’-34,000’ = 265kts; Turbulence = 0.83M
Time of Useful Consciousness:
✈ 40,000’ = 15 seconds
✈ 35,000’ = 45 seconds
✈ 30,000’ = 1 minute
✈ 25,000’ = 3 minutes
✈ 20,000’ = 30 minutes
Working limit and Operational limit of CG:
✈ The CG must be within the working limits (13-33% MAC – those depicted on the W&B manifest)
- These limits ensure CG does not exceed the certified operational CG limits (7-37%MAC) taking into account PAX movement, PAX seating, usage and loading of fuel, fuel density and configuration changes
Recognising a fuel leak:
✈ Comparing Totalizer and Calculated fuel values will determine ✈ NNC will instruct to shut down the engine after determining whether leak is from the strut or engine area ✈ Engine shutdown will close spar valve which will prevent fuel loss and reduce fire potential
Integrated AIP: Volcanic ash - how to identify and what to do about it:
￼✈ Identify – smoke/ash in the cockpit in cabin, electrical smoke, St Elmo’s fire, bright orange glow at engine inlet, multiple engine malfunctions, shadows cast by landing lights, false cargo fire warnings , FWD equipment OVHT or SMOKE ✈ Exit ASAP via 180 degree turn, oxygen masks, EAI and WAI on, close thrust levers, APU on, consider A/L with low vis
NPA straight-in, circling, CAT I Visual requirements at MDA:
✈ T/H; RWY markings – T/H markings, designators, TDZ markings; ALS/RAI; RL; T/H lighting or REIL; TDZL, VGSI ✈ Don’t descend below 100’AFE using only ALS/RAI unless see red terminating barrettes, red side row barrettes or other visual reference
CAT II Visual requirements at MDA:
✈ ALS crossbar; RWTHL; TDZL barrette and ✈ 3 consecutive ALS (crossbar, red terminating or red side row barrettes); RL/CL; TDZL ✈ Don’t descend below 100’AFE using only ALS/RAI unless see red terminating barrettes, red side row barrettes or other visual reference
✈ BOF + CON + ALTN + RES = minimum required by law ✈ Above + TAXI = minimum required by Company ✈ Above + PCF + EXTRA as required ✈ After FOB signed for, may use part of EXTRA, TAXI or PCF for APU – amount of FOB must be at least the Company minimum required at block-out time ✈ If waiting at the holding point, may use PCF, EXTRA and TAXI fuel; must not use CON fuel on the ground
Company Group Safety Actions:
￼✈ Strictly adhere to rules an regulations, all actions grounded on safety ✈ Safety is the number 1 priority, keeping your health in mind ✈ Address any questions and sincerely accept others opinions ✈ Accurately report any information and share in a timely manner ✈ Continuous self improvement for prevention and avoiding re-occurrence ✈ Learn from experience and increase skills for risk awareness
AIMJ: 131 – ILS:
✈ LOC – Between full ‘fly left’ and full ‘fly right’, LOC signal adjusted to cover 700’ (210m) of width over the T/H ✈ G/S – Equipment adjusted for the descent angle of 2.5-3.5° (CAT 1) and 2.5-3.0° (CAT II/III); installed to the side of the runway (off C/L), therefore complete guidance to T/D is not provided; full scale deflection is 100’ at the middle marker
AIMJ: 264 – Wind Bearing:
✈ Wind data provided by Tower or ATIS referenced to magnetic direction
AIMJ: 265 – RVR:
✈ An RVR value is reported when one of the observed values is 1800m or less
AIMJ: 443 – Altitude Reporting:
✈ Report assigned altitude and present altitude when in climb upon each initial contact
AIMJ: 501 – ATS Route:
✈ Airway – Domestic protected airspace = 4nm each side primary area and 4 nm secondary area; Domestic offshore = 50nm each side; International offshore = 50nm each side (Northers and Central Pacific regions) and 25nm each side (Japan sea and S/E Asia)
When is monitoring of the emergency frequency 121.500MHz required?
✈ Basically for SAR & loss of comms with ATC (not to be confused with comms loss) ✈ Aircraft should guard 121.500MHz except for an “unavoidable situation”. This may be due to: ✈ Aircraft are carrying out communications on the other VHF channel ✈ Cockpit duties do not permit simultaneous guarding of two channels ✈ Airborne equipment limitations do not permit simultaneous guarding of two channels
What is a typhoon?
Field Limit? Climb Limit?
V1, airspeed decreases.. Actions? Markings?
DA – visual reference? What do you require to descend below 100’?