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Flashcards in ATPL JOHANNES Deck (53):
1

Policy and concepts?

Policy = Fly first / Assure safe and reliable operations / Achieve Efficient and effective operations / Promote standard and uniform operations

Concept = Task sharing / Crew co-ordination / Crew communication (keep it simple and easy to understand) / Monitor and crosscheck / Workload management / Discipline

2

B767 Touch Down zone?

750’ to 2000’ (227m to 610m); midway between first 2 TDZ markings to 3rd set ofTDZ markings

3

B767 Aiming Point?

1250’ (378m); just before aiming point markings

4

When is a G/A required?

When a safe landing is supposedly impossible, PM to call “GO AROUND”
Final judgement is at PIC (Captain) discretion, even if GO AROUND call made by PM
If airspeed is the reason for GA decision, guideline is if the average IAS is not continuously in the range of VREF to VREF+20 at the threshold, then G/A

5

3 types of takeoff's?

Normal T/O – brakes on, set 70% N1, release brakes, N1; effective method formaintaining directional control, especially on slippery runway

Rolling T/O – thrust to 70% N1, N1, with no brakes applied; recommended for strongcrosswind (>20kts) and tailwind (>10kts) to prevent engine surging; shortens T/O time but increase T/O distance by approx. 150’; makes directional control more difficult

Static T/O – brakes on, set 70% N1, N1 thrust reached, release brakes; less TODR and good directional control; in slippery conditions, a/c may slip and move even with full brakes on, increases chance of FOD, very noisy, pax discomfort

6

Climb performance gradients?

1st segment = positive climb / lift off to GEAR UP

2nd segment = 2.4% / GEAR UP to level off altitude (minimum 400’ AFE) / most limiting

3rd segment = 1.2% / acceleration level segment for flap retraction

4th segment = 1.2% / final speed climb at MCT to at least 1500’ AFE

7

Landing performance?

Approach Climb = 2.1% / critical engine inop, gear UP, approach flaps, G/A thrust on remaining engine and speed not greater than 1.4 Vs1g

Landing Climb = 3.2% / all engines operating, gear DOWN, LDG flaps, speed not less than 1.23 Vs1g

8

Weight Limit by Tire Speed Limit and Brake Energy Limit?

For C2B2, limits not required to be checked unless CDL and MEL are applied as theselimits will not become restrictive under most stringent conditions

For C2B6, required to check the limits when flight plans are made as follows and when CDL's and MEL's apply – when airport pressure ALT at or below 2000’, TOW at or above 310.0 (T/W > 5kts) etc; when airport pressure ALT above 2000’, TOW at or above 280.0 (T/W > 5kts) etc

Brake energy limit more restrictive than tire speed limit

9

Speed Planning?

ECON climb – most economical weight based on TOW and CI 73 = 250/290/0.78

Max Angle climb – max climb gradient, use VREF30+80/0.77

Max Rate climb – reach cruise AT in minimum time, use FL UP man speed +50

High speed climb – used to shorten Block time, use 250/350/0.83

ECON cruise – most economical and functional speed based on CI 73 = 290/0.78

LRC – minimizes BOF, 99% of max range fuel mileage obtained

High speed cruise – used to shorten block time; use 350/0.83

ECON descent – most economical based on CI 73, uses 0.78/290/250

10

WX requirement for flight to be conducted?

DEP wx must be at or above T/O minima

DEST wx must be at or above LDG minima

ALTN wx must be at or above ALTN minima

Planning minima for T/O ALTN =
CAT II/III approach available – RVR/VIS CAT II/IIIminima; CAT I approach available – RVR/VIS CAT I minima;
NPA available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for NPA;
CIRC available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for circling

Planning minima for DEST ALTN =
CAT II/III approach available – CAT I minima;
CAT I approach available - MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for NPA;
NPA available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’ +200’, VIS for NPA + 1000m;
CIRC available – MDH CIG rounded up to nearest 100’, VIS for circling

11

Alternate requirements?

Preflight – IFR require 1 ALTN; if DEST weather forecast intermittently below LDG minima at ETA, require 2 ALTN unless 1 of the ALTN weather CIG greater than 1500’ and VIS greater than 5000m at ETA (then only require 1 ALTN)

Inflight – if DEST weather forecast less than LDG minima at ETA, need additional ALTN to continue towards DEST or if wx not forecast to improve at DEST and additional ALTN can’t be selected, must change DEST. These don’t apply if able to HOLD until wx forecast to improve at DEST or the ALTN wx at ETA indicates CIG greater than 1500’ and VIS greater than 5000m or the a/c diverts to the ALTN

Inflight – if ALTN weather forecast less than ALTN minima, select a new ALTN; don’t continue to DEST unless CIG greater than 2000’ or 1500’ added to DH/MDH and VIS greater than 5000m or 3200m added to min RVR/vis and flight to dest less than 6 hours; if neither of these options available the DEST to be changed, if ALTN can’t be selected without change to destination

Inflight – if both DEST and ALTN below company minima, select new DEST with new ALTN

Inflight – if DEST closed temporarily, may continue if no interference with safety of flight; change route if CB’s or turbulence or NAV facilities impact flight

12

T/O Alternate?

If DEP wx less than LDG minima (with RVR at least 200m) or unable to return due curfew, require a T/O alternate. To be within 1 hour, 1 eng inop cruise speed (424nm); if destination within this distance then T/O ALTN not required. If the CIG reported below LDG minima but another a/c has landed, can assume it will be above minima; reported RVR/vis must still be above the LDG minima. The T/O ALTN weather must be at or above the ALTN minima specified in route manual

13

Minimum weather requirements?

T/O with T/O ALTN selected = SSP/LVP in use, HIRL and CL in use, 200/200/200RVR, CIG 0’;
SSP/LVP not in use, VIS 400m, CIG 0’

T/O without T/O ALTN = LDG minima (RVR must be >200m) LDG minima = NPA, CAT I , CAT II, CAT III; CMV not less than 800m

ALTN minima = Precision Approach – 600’/3200m; NPA – 800’/3200m

14

RNAV Route specifications and requirements?

M, Y, Z on charts; R or Z on the flight plan
Fukuoka FIR – RNAV 1 (SID/STAR/ENR),
RNAV 5 (SID/STAR/ENROUTE)
RNAV 10 (OCEANIC),
RNAV 2 (SID/STAR/ENR)
Equipment RNAV 1/2 = FMS + DME + IRS + GPS
Equipment RNAV 5 = FMS + DME + IRS + GPS + VOR
Equipment RNAV 10 = FMS + 2 IRS + GPS

15

Approach Ban?

May not continue the approach past a specified point if weather reported to be below LDG minima. Points are FAF, OM, 1000’ – specified in Route manual for each approach. The captain may commence an approach regardless of the weather but must notcontinue past the point unless weather reported to be above the landing companyminima

16

Crosswind limitations?

Does Approach Ban apply to crosswind exceedence? No, it applies to limits in operations manual regarding 500’ point

17

Converted Meteorological Visibility?

Can be used for CAT I and NPA straight in only. Not to be used for T/O, ALTN, Circling, CAT II/III. It is a value = to RVR. Take visibility and apply factor to get the RVR/CMV value. Lowest limit CMV = 800m. CMV shown for visibilities greater than 1600m

18

Seat Belt Policy?

Critical Phase – Departure = Block out to 5 mins after T/O; Arrival = 10 mins before LDG to Block in.
Flight crew to keep SB on at all times. Shoulder harness on for T/O, LDG, when ordered by captain.
Seat belt sign to be on during taxi, T/O, LDG, Turbulence anticipated or encountered, whenever captain deems necessary

19

RVSM equipment?

FL290-410; 1000’ separation instead of 2000’Level off within 150’, don’t overshoot >300’Equipment = 2 x primary altimeters, 2 x ADC, 1 x ALT hold function of A/P, 1 x ALT alerting function (EICAS), 1 x SSR altitude reporting transponder Mode CAltimeter – Capt and F/O to be within 40’ on ground; both to be within 75’ ofelevation; both to be within 200’ of each other in the air

20

Critical DME?

If becomes unserviceable, results in navigation becoming insufficient for DME/DME/IRU based operations (RNAV 1/2)If U/S, the max DME gap is 14nm and if this is the case, RNAV 1 and 2 operations N/A

21

RNAV primary navigation sensors?

RNAV 1/2 – DME/DME, DME/DME/IRU, GPS – SID/STAR/ENRRNAV 5 – DME/DME, VOR/DME, INS OR IRS, GPS – SID/STAR/ENR RNAV 10 – INS OR IRS, GPS - OCEANIC

22

Captain’s duties?

Prior to flight – check mental and physical fitness of all crew; check NOTAMS,weather, weight and balance; safety of loading; quantity and quality of fuel and oil; condition of a/c and equipment; required documents; flight plan; crew briefing; inform jump seat occupants; hand carry items present; safety instructions given to pax by CAIn-flight – adhere to rules and procedures; normally manipulate controls from the left seat; direct and supervise all crew; revise Company clearance if required; comply with OM regarding assisting other a/c in distressPost flight – submit any required reports; direct crew and pax for CIQ if required; conduct crew de-briefing; notify maintenance if required

23

Captain’s responsibilities?

Full and final responsibility for safety of flight; responsibility of all POB and cargo;direct and supervise all crew; may delegate duties; not leave for rest unless Dep Captain relieves; ensure a pilot qualifies for airport in seat for T/O or LDG; on flight deck for T/O and LDG; if leaving fight deck, do handover; keep flight logbook and Gen Dec

24

Captain reports?

OM 8 specifies for Captain reports to company or Air Safety report required by law

25

Captain Authority?

Full responsibilities during flight; flight = Departure time to Arrival timeFrom all doors closed for departure to any door open for disembarkation, the Captainmay take measures to restrain a person if necessary

26

Emergency during flight:

The Captain shall take every means necessary to secure PAX safetyIn the event of danger or danger is imminent, Captain must order PAX to evacuate

27

Trans-Authority Gradient:

The relative power relationship between crewmembers in the cockpit; not too steep agradient is most effective, where the Captain still has command and leads theoperation and F/O not too overridden or too commanding

28

Areas of Responsibility:

PF – MCP, Alternate stab trim, parking brake, speed brake,PM – overhead panel, stab trim cut out, FCS, fire switches, CANCEL/RECALL switchesOther items are based on position convenience and accessibility

29

Use of the Warning Letter:

A measure for Cat 1 (violent behavior, damaging a/c, hijack) and Cat 3 (smokingother that in lavatory, shouting and making loud noise) to tell PAX behavior is unacceptable; not mandatory to issue if it is considered to worsen the situation; CA can verbally warn after getting Captain’s permissionIf do use letter, must advise ground crew and submit an air safety report

30

Documents in pouch on the wall:

Airworthiness Certificate, Registration Certificate, Designation for Operating Limitations, Radio Station Licence, Emergency Documents, AOCIf the seal is broken, captain to check each document is present and report to maintenance; a/c may depart is all documents present; if any document is missing,report to flight operations support and do not depart; if any are damaged or missing,report to ground personnel and operations

31

Fuel policy: definitions and calculations:

OM Chapter 3

32

Definitions:

Departure (Block Out)– a/c first moves from specified position for T/OArrival (Block In) – a/c comes to a specified position at the end of flightFlight – total operation from Departure to Arrival

33

Optimum Altitude:

Optimum gives the best fuel mileage for a given cruising altitude and weightMinimises BOFInitial Cruise ALT chart (optimum) allows for 1.3G and 300fpm ROC

34

MAX Altitude:

Max altitude based on MCLT/MCRT limit or Buffet Margin 1.3G (smooth or lightturbulence) or 1.5G (moderate or severe turbulence)Max cruise ALT capability with thrust at MCRT (0fpm climb rate)Max ALT where ROC 300fpm available climb rate available with MCLTFMC default based on 25% MAC, if FWD of this (10%) then max ALT will be lowerthan chart valueInitial Cruise ALT chart (maximum) allows for 1.3G and 300fpm ROC

35

Communication Failure:

Route Manual Basic – Flight RulesListening watch; if receiving ATC instruction, follow them; follow RM procedures; usethe phrase TRANSMITTING BLIND; use HF if available; SQ 7600If VMC – remain VMC and land at nearest suitableIf IFR and above is not practicable or in IMC – ROUTE = proceed on cleared route tolast point over destination; if RV’s, proceed to fix instructed as last point of RV or nearest fix towards destination on planned route/last assigned route. ALT and SPEED = last assigned or MEA (higher of) until 7 mins (RADAR) following time reached that altitude or set SQ7600 (later of); 20 mins (not RADAR) following failure to report at compulsory reporting point. APPROACH = commence descent from last point over destination without delay if clearance was received, or at EAT, or ETA last reported to ATC, or when total EET from T/O reached for destination. HOLDING = if received instructions to hold before failure, commence descent for approach after holding until EAT, or EFCT, or EET from T/O reached for destination

36

Where is SAR facility located in Japan and SAR phases:

RMB – Search and Rescue; Haneda AirportUncertainty phase, Alert phase, Distress phase

37

What is windshear:

A change in wind speed and/or direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing orshearing effect; sometimes accompanies turbulenceIndicated by TS, virga, PWS, WSASIndication of W/S encounter – WSAS or unacceptable flight path deviationsUnacceptable flight path deviations are conditions in excess of the following below1000’AGL – 15kts, 5 degrees pitch, 500fpm, 1 dot G/S, unusual thrust lever positionfor a significant period of time

38

ANA STABILIZED APPROACH concept:

OM 3-1-16Stabilised with LDG checklist completed by passing 1000’ AFE (500’ for circling approach)A/C considered stablilised when attitude and position are correct, IAS and sink rate are within limits, thrust is appropriateIf a/c is not stable by 1000’/500’ or becomes unstable below those heights, must G/AIf ATC restriction prevents a/c being stable by 1000’, establish stable approach ASAPCircling approach, wings to be level by 300’AFE and no excessive maneuvering for correction required

39

EICAS STATUS message:

Indicate conditions requiring crew awareness for dispatch (MEL items)Page number indicated below the list if additional messages exist; select STATUSagain to display the next pageStatus Cue on secondary EICAS indicates new STATUS message exists; removed whenSTATUS page displayed

40

Holding Speeds JAPAN:

NAVAIDS: 0-6000’ = 210kts, >6000-14000’ =220kts, >14000’ =240kts; VB 280/0.80MOther (DME fix, WPT, intersection): 0-6000’ = 200kts, >6000-14000’ = 230kts (maybe restricted to 210kts on chart), >14000’ = 265ktsPANS new criteria: 0-14000 = 230kts, >14000’-20,000’ = 240kts; VB 280/0.80M;>20,000’-34,000’ = 265kts; VB 0.83M

41

Integrated AIP:

AIP – Aeronautical Information PublicationAIP Amendments – new info of a lasting characterAIP Supplements – temporary changes to AIP (3 months or longer); yellow pagesNOTAM – essential conditions/changes to flight operations; facility service,procedure, hazardAIC – Aeronautical Information Circular; relates to flight safety, air nav etc but doesn’tqualify for NOTAM or inclusion in AIPChecklists – of NOTAMS, latest AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and AICSummaries – effective NOTAMS affecting Fukuoka FIR distributed on 1st day of everymonth

42

Initial T/O pitch both normal and single engine:

Normal Techniques; ManeuversNormal T/O = Rotation is 3° /second to 19° pitch attitude (280.0T, TO2)Single Engine T/O = Rotation is slightly less at 1.5-2.5° / second to 12.5° pitchattitudeWith a T/W this pitch would slightly reduceNormal G/A pitch = 15°, then level off FL 5 = 4.5° / 63% N1Single engine G/A = 2.5°, then level off FL 1 = 6° / 80% N1

43

Time of Useful Consciousness:

40,000’ = 15 seconds; 35,000’ = 45 seconds; 30,000’ = 1 minute; 25,000’ 3 minutes;20,000’ = 30 minutes

44

CG movement during flight to Narita:

CG moves rearward (CG increases)

45

Working limit and Operational limit of CG:

The CG must be within the working limits (13-33% MAC – those depicted on the W&Bmanifest); these limits ensure CG does not exceed the certified operational CG limits (7-37%MAC) taking into account PAX movement, PAX seating, usage and loading of fuel, fuel density and configuration changes

46

Recognising a fuel leak:

Comparing Totalizer and Calculated fuel values will determineN/N checklist will instruct to shut down the engine after determining whether leak isfrom the strut or engine areaEngine shutdown will close spar valve which will prevent fuel loss and reduce firepotential

47

Volcanic ash - how to identify and what to do about it:

Identify – smoke/ash in the cockpit in cabin, electrical smoke, St Elmo’s fire, brightorange glow at engine inlet, multiple engine malfunctions, shadows cast by landing lights, false cargo fire warnings , FWD equipment OVHT or SMOKEExit ASAP via 180 degree turn, oxygen masks, EAI and WAI on, close thrust levers, APU on, consider A/L with low vis

48

NPA straight-in, circling, CAT I Visual requirements at MDA:

T/H; RWY markings – T/H markings, designators, TDZ markings; ALS/RAI; RL; T/Hlighting or REIL; TDZL, VGSIDon’t descend below 100’AFE using only ALS/RAI unless see red terminatingbarrettes, red side row barrettes or other visual reference

49

CAT II Visual requirements at MDA:

ALS crossbar; RWTHL; TDZL barrette and3 consecutive ALS (crossbar, red terminating or red side row barrettes); RL/CL; TDZLDon’t descend below 100’AFE using only ALS/RAI unless see red terminatingbarrettes, red side row barrettes or other visual reference

50

SCAN PATTERN during approach:

AOM 3-1-14

51

Changing of assigned seating after boarding:

AOR 4-2-1

52

Fuel required:

BOF + CON + ALTN + RES = minimum required by lawAbove + TAXI = minimum required by CompanyAbove + PCF + EXTRA as requiredAfter FOB signed for, may use part of EXTRA, TAXI or PCF for APU – amount of FOBmust be at least the Company minimum required at Block-out timeIf waiting at the holding point, may use PCF, EXTRA and TAXI fuel; must not use CONfuel on the ground

53

Company Group Safety Actions:

Strictly adhere to rules an regulations, all actions grounded on safetySafety is the number 1 priority, keeping your health in mindAddress any questions and sincerely accept others opinionsAccurately report any information and share in a timely mannerContinuous self improvement for prevention and avoiding re-occurrenceLearn from experience and increase skills for risk awareness