Please explain company basic policy
Policies for High Quality Operations:
- Ensure safety
- Achieve max efficiency
- Maintain schedule
- Passenger comfort
- Conduct flight based on policy above
- Any disagreement, use safer option
- If either think the flight is unsuitable, DON’T GO!
- Captain has final responsibility for safety
- Dispatcher supports captain using personnel, equipment & authorities so that flights are safe & efficient
- Do not fly if crew members are unfit for duty
- Except for the occurrence of a problem or hindrance, where there is a serious doubt that the airplane can fly safely, it is safer to continue the take-off than to reject it from a point near V1
Points to note:
- Decision is left to the Captain’s best judgement
- Engine failure with thrust loss, or a take-off warning that would render the airplane unflyable prior to V1: reject takeoff
- Over EGT or engine fire without thrust loss near V1: continue takeoff
- Malfunctions such as tyre or anti-skid failure can hinder braking performance during an RTO
Explain stabilised approach
- Enhance situational awareness through monitoring
- Avoid configuration changes providing more time to respond to ATC, weather changes and system operation
- Assists in making go-around / missed approach decision
- Provides margin for landing performance by ensuring correct touchdown speed & point Stabilised by 1,000’ AFE with Landing Checklist completed
- 1,000’ not mandatory, but should be stabilised asap
Lost communication procedure
- Continue the climb to the assigned altitude or MEA, whichever is higher
- In a radar environment: 7 mins after 7600 set, OR 7 minutes at MEA, continue climb to the filed cruising altitude
- Non-radar environment: After passing a reporting point which cannot be reported, wait 20 mins then climb to the filed altitude
Lost communication procedure NRT?
Why should you keep the VORs in Auto?
- FMC tunes VORs and DMEs for position updating
- Can only be in auto when HSI in MAP or PLAN mode
In flight, can you change cost index? What is the range?
- ANA range: 20 - 200 (20 40 73 110 150 200)
- B767 range: 0 - 999, but do not use
Seven scenarios for emergency landing? Any other scenarios?
- Engine Failure / Fire
- Smoke / Fire / Fumes in cabin
- One hydraulic system remaining
- One AC power source remaining
- Altimeter problem (contact ATC immediately for instructions)
- NNC contains “Plan to land at the nearest suitable airport”
- Any other situations where continued flight safety affected
How many memory item checklists?
Can you explain all eight memory item checklists?
Warning letter to passengers: who issues warning? Who signs letter?
- Chief Purser issues letter, signed by the captain
- Not mandatory if it may make the situation worse
Three types of passenger behavior?
- Category 1, 2 and 3 behavior
Category 1 passenger behavior?
- Current laws (e.g. criminal law) Hijacking / damaging aircraft
- Violence against crew/passengers
- Damage to property
- Leads to Warning, Restraint, Police, etc
Category 2 passenger behavior?
- Aviation Law (73-4)
- Tampering with exit or emergency doors
- Smoking in lavatory
- Disturbing crew from duties
- Using electrical device (e.g. phone)
- Not wearing seatbelt when ordered
- Not positioning seat back / table / footrest
- Leaving baggage in aisle
- Operating, moving or damaging emergency equipment
- Leads to prohibition order
Category 3 passenger behavior?
- Aviation Law, but not to be punished
- Smoking in non-smoking area except lavatory
- Shouting or making unreasonable noise
- Leads to warning
Prohibition order? Who issues it and when?
- If the passenger’s behaviour corresponds to “Behaviours subject to prohibition order” (Category 2)
- Passenger continues behaviour after explanation from cabin attendant
- Captain orders chief purser to issue prohibition order
Please explain three phases of Search and Rescue
- Uncertainty phase
- Alert phase
- Distress phase
Where is SAR control centre?
- Haneda Airport
Please explain TCAS RA. What phraseology is used?
- Follow RA immediately (unless unsafe)
- Stall warnings, alerts and GPWS have priority over RA
- Visual traffic may not be the one causing RA
- RA takes priority over ATC
- Do not move opposite to RA
- As soon as possible, notify the appropriate ATC unit of any RA as follows:
- "TCAS RA"
- "CLEAR OF CONFLICT, RETURNING TO (assigned clearance)"
- "CLEAR OF CONFLICT, (assigned clearance) RESUMED”
- If unable to comply with ATC instruction "UNABLE, TCAS RA"
- File a report post-flight!
Please explain CMV
- Converted Meteorological Visibility
- Substitute for RVR when RVR not available
- Calculated by factoring reported met. vis.
- Depends on daytime or nighttime
- Can be used for straight in NPA or CAT I ONLY
Cannot be used:
- CAT II/III
- Alternate airport
Minimum: Cat I: 800m NPA: 1200 - 2000m. See table
Weather / terrain issues at NRT
- Seasonal weather
- Fuji / mountain waves
Signs of volcanic ash in IMC?
- Checklist (180° turn, reduce power etc.)
What action should you take if you encounter volcanic ash on short final?
- Don’t use wipers
- Consider go-around if you lose visibility
Explain the volcanic ash checklist
Explain the derated thrust settings
- TO1: max thrust derate 95% (300), 90% (ER)
TO2: max thrust derate 85% (300), 80% (ER)
TO2: max thrust derate 85% (300), 80% (ER)
ABV 10,000ft Derated thrust gradually changes to reach full CLB thrust by:
(300) 12,000ft. The 1 or 2 annunciation disappears from the display by 12,500ft
(300ER,F) 30,000ft. The 1 annunciation disappears by 30,500ft The 2 annunciation remains until either flaps are extended or GA
Explain takeoff segments. Requirements for 2 engine aircraft?
Why do you need to make accurate Standard Callouts?
Please explain cruise settings (Econ, MRC, LRC)
How do you handle blind passengers?
- 1 attendant can escort max 2 blind people
- 1 blind person can travel with max. 1 guide dog (treated as 1 attendant)
- Seat assignment not in an exit row
- Attendant (including dog) assigned to the adjacent seat
- First to board, last to deplane
- Limit on max. blind people: No limit at all to/from US
- Otherwise, only limited by passenger handling capacity if no attendants on board
What is a flight deck observer weight? Always 170 lbs?
- Weight: 170 lbs
- Index: -1
- It may be rounded to nearest 100
In CTZ: speed restriction?
- Greater than 3,000 = 250 kts
- 3,000 or less = 200 kts (piston 160)
How do you check NOTAMS?
- If Route Manual is up-to-date, NOTAMS attached to FPL are OK
- If non-standard airport, need to use AIP
Integrated Aeronautical Information Package contents
AIP (Publication) - In accordance with ICAO annex 15 - Information of lasting character essential to air navigation - AIRAC cycle 28 days
AIP Amendments (pink: permanent changes)
AIP Supplements (yellow: > 3 month temporary)
NOTAMs & PIB (pre-flight information bulletin) Airport type Route type Area type Flight plan type
AIC (aeronautical information circular)
All passengers on board with the door still open. If there is a cabin fire, who is responsible?
- Responsibility shared between captain and handling agent
- However, evacuation must be ordered by captain
When you arrive at the aircraft, how much fuel do you need to have?
- The Captain shall confirm the the FOB approved in company clearance has been loaded
What is the required fuel?
Air Law (MINIMUM):
- Contingency (min. 5% BOF or 15 mins holding)
- Reserve (30 mins holding in ISA)
Company As above, plus:
- May use some fuel prior to block-out, but must have at least minimum fuel at block-out
Explain minimum fuel. Can you get priority?
- Minimum fuel reported to ATC when little or no delay can be accepted
- Not an emergency nor priority request
- Report “MINIMUM FUEL”
To get priority in fuel emergency, what do you say?
- “MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL”
- When estimated landing fuel < 30 mins holding
How do you apply the MEL?
- Maintains an acceptable level of safety when equipment/systems inop
- Applied in cases where repair/replacement can’t be made in time e.g. lack of spare parts, facilities, personnel or time
- Only applied before Block Out (may need to use EICAS Cross-Ref)
- Final decision for accepting MEL is by PIC
- A = As specified
- B = 3 days (72 hours)
- C = 10 days
- All excluding the day the malfunction discovered
Where is ANA touchdown zone & aiming point?
- Touchdown = 750 - 2000 ft
- Aiming point = 1250 ft
Definitions for fuel?
Today's weight is 280,000lbs. What is the takeoff/landing distance? What is the maximum / optimum altitude?
- Take-off (F5, D2, 25oC, 0ft) 5,900’
- Landing (F30, Dry, with anti-skid) 4,900’
- Optimum altitude (ECON cruise) 37,300’ / FL370
- Maximum altitude 1.3G = 41,100’ 1.5G = 37,900’ ISA + 10o = 42,300’ So FL410
What is the aerodynamic advantage of optimum altitude?
- Optimum altitude: best fuel mileage for a given airspeed and weight
- Max. altitude: altitude at which planned cruising airspeed is obtainable with thrust at MCRT with 0fpm residual climb capacity
- So optimum is best efficient level for burn off fuel and gives some margins for turbulence & TCAS RA
Why not fly at maximum altitude?
- Can't do TCAS climb
- No buffet margin
- Less fuel efficient
Captain's responsibilities and duties
Definition of typhoon. Which area to avoid?
Explain alternate weather minima (company).
Also learn Air Law minima for route flying
When do you need a second alternate?
If destination weather forecast to be below minimums intermittently at ETA:
- Need 2 alternates
- Unless alternate is more than 1,500ft CIG and 5,000m VIS at the ETA over the alternate
Explain TEMPO in a weather report
- Temporary changes in the weather
- Each change 30-60 mins
- Does not cover more than half of the total period
SDE2FGHILORVWX/P on flight plan?
- S = Standard equipment (VHF, VOR, ILS)
- D = DME
- E2 = ACARS
- F = ADF
- G = GNSS
- H = HF
- I = IRS
- L = ILS
- O = VOR
- R = PBN (RNAV)
- V = VHF
- W = RVSM
- X = MNPS
- /P = ModeS
PBN/A1B1C1D1L1O1S1 on flight plan?
- Performance-based navigation (RNAV)
- A1 = RNAV (RNP) 10
- B1 = RNAV 5
- C1 = RNAV 2
- D1 = RNAV 1
- L1 = RNP4
- O1 = Basic RNP1
- S1 = RNAV Approach
What is DRM? Explain the difference between DRM and company clearance
- Dispatch Release Message: provided by flight dispatcher includes Operational Flight Plan approved by the flight dispatcher
- Company Clearance: when the captain and the flight dispatcher approve the operational flight plan the DRM becomes the company clearance
Which RNAV will be used today? SID? Oceanic?
- SID/STAR: RNAV 1
- Enroute: RNAV 5
- Oceanic: RNAV 10 / RNP 4
Required equipment on board RNAV
- DME, GPS, IRS, FMS
- DME, GPS, IRS, FMS, VOR
- 2 x IRS, GPS, FMS (1 or 2?) If no GPS, limit 09:33
Required equipment on board RVSM
- 2 independent altitude measuring systems
- 1 automatic altitude control system
- 1 altitude alert system
- 1 SSR altitude reporting transponder
Required equipment on board CAT1
- 1 ILS Receiver
- 1 Marker Receiver (if approach includes marker beacon)
- FD or AP with APP mode (for RVR <1200m)
What is the tolerance of RVSM equipment? Altitude of overshoot?
- On ground: Primary altimeter / field elevation diff: 75’
- 2 primary altimeters difference: 40’
- In flight: 2 primary altimeters difference: 200' (check every hour)
- Overshoot / undershoot reported if deviation >150’
- Deviation by 300' reported once established
Explain Critical DME & DME Gap
- A DME facility that, when unavailable, results in a navigational service which is insufficient for DME/DME or DME/DME/IRU based operations along a specific route or procedure
- A section of route that does not receive the combination of DME signals that satisfy specific navigation accuracy
- When Critical DME is unservicable resulting in DME gap of >14nm RNAV 1/2 is prohibited. Vectors should be requested from ATC
Designation purpose of approach ban, and locations. How can you check?
- Definition: The regulation of forbidding to continue approach beyond a specific point unless the reported weather condition is above the specified Company Minima
- It is established, additionally to the regulations regarding PIC’s decision to continue at DA/MDA, to enhance the sureness of the landing and reduce unnecessary maneuver at low altitude
- Some states don’t have Approach Ban; however Company does
- In Japan: FAF Outer Marker 1,000’ AFE
- Otherwise: If published in state’s AIP, it will be in Route Manual
- Otherwise 1,000'
Explain Trans-Cockpit Gradient (TAG)
- Shows the relative power relationship between crewmembers in the cockpit
- Crew acts accordingly in recognition of the relationship
- The gradient between the Captain and Copilot should be neither too STEEP, nor too FLAT
- Appropriate TAG results in free communication among crew while Captain can still exercise necessary authority
What are the three levels of assertion?
Explain Doppler LIDAR
- Like Doppler Radar, using Laser transmission and return echo intensity measurement to detect windshear, turbulence, and microbursts
- Used in RJAA (NRT) and RJTT (HND)
- Difference between Radar and Lidar: Lidar CAN issue WS alerts without precipitation present. Radar CANNOT.
What is the dynamic aquaplaning speed?
- Hydroplaning speed Vp = 9 √ P Tyre pressure ≈ 160psi, so Vp = 114kts
- Continues until speed less than 85% Vp (97kts)
- Thin water film prevents tyre contact with runway
- Tire melts, and water vapour from friction heat lifts tyre off runway
When do you need to switch to transponder 2?
- When using right autopilot
In climb, ADC failure occurs. What are the considerations?
- RVSM is FL290-410
- Transfer control if necessary
- Select ADC alternate on source selector panel
- Once indications return to normal, advise ATC "unable RVSM due equipment.”
- Negotiate an RVSM altitude, if possible
- If lower altitude is expected, contact ANA for updated fuel figures
Windshear on takeoff near/after V1. What actions do you take?
- May not be sufficient runway to stop
- Rotate normally within last 2,000’, even if airspeed low
- Set maximum thrust
- 3,000’ Centreline lights alternate red/white
- 2,000’ Edge lights turn yellow
- First (double) touchdown zone marking before aiming point at far end
- ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼￼1,000’ Centreline lights turn red
Describe the three types of takeoff. What are the advantages/disadvantages?
- Effective for maintaining directional control
- Best for slippery runways
- Recommended for strong crosswind (greater than 20kts) and tailwind (greater than 10kts) to prevent engine surging
- Shortens T/O time but increases T/O distance by approx. 150’
- Makes directional control more difficult
- Less TODR and good directional control
- In slippery conditions, a/c may slip and move even with full brakes on
- Increased chance of FOD
- Very noisy Passenger discomfort
Explain rainy seasons in Japan
- There are 2 rainy seasons in Japan
The "Bai-u," (early May through later June, early July) Bai-u front / Bai-u frontal zone
A stationary front runs along the southern coast forming a frontal zone
Largest rainfall in SW Japan
- The "Shurin," or "Akisame" (autumn rain), after the summer
- Shurin (Akisame) front / Shurin frontal zone
- Largest rainfall in E Japan
- Shurin season is also the typhoon season
- Very humid air flow and spiral rain bands, which lie around a typhoon over the southern ocean, are joined to the Shurin frontal system
A stationary front runs along the southern coast forming a frontal zone
Largest rainfall in SW Japan
Wake turbulence separation:
- 1 wingspan high, 2 wingspans wide
- With heavy aircraft, clean, low speed
- 2-3 mins (shorter with turbulence)
- Rolling moment, gust load, up/down drafts
- Sink rate 400-500 fpm
- Stopping 900 ft below flight path
- Lateral movement ≈ 3 kts
- Vortices stay in calm wind - use caution
- Stay above flightpath of preceding aircraft
- Use caution landing on same runway with a light quartering tailwind
- Use caution landing behind heavy on parallel runway (< 2,500’ apart)
- Takeoff / landing: 2 min separation behind heavy on a missed approach
- Note the rotation / touchdown point of preceding aircraft
What is the required paperwork on board? If the pouch seal broken, what actions would you take?
Required by law: (RARE JAL OPS RAM)
- Registration certificate
- Airworthiness certificate
- Radio Station Licence (and Aircraft Earth Station Licence if SATCOM)
- Emergency Documents
- Aircraft Logbook (Journey Log & Radio Log)
- AOC Original Transcript (Air Operator Certificate True Transcript if international)
- Operational Limitations
- Operations Manual
- Operations Policy Manual
- Operations Specifications
- Route Manual & Charts
- AOM/QRH (Flight Manual)
Required by other countries/authorities:
- Civil Aircraft Landing Permit (USAF only - in Route Manual)
- Dangerous Goods (US only)
- Noise documents
Required by Company:
- AOC copy
- Normal Checklist
- Landing performance chart
- Handy Speed Book
If the seal is broken on the Certification Holder (pouch): Captain checks each document and reports to ANA maintenance If none missing, may fly. If some are lost, report to Flight Ops & Ground personnel
TAF validity period?
- 30 hours
Dispatch comments? How many conditions?
- Condition A
- Condition B
- One of these is bad
Explain the procedure for passenger seat zone changes before departure
- Max 3 FWD AND 3 AFT (Total 6)
- If more than this: On ground: Notify load controller
- Recalculate W&B
- After departure: Max seat changes displayed on ACARS loadsheet
- Captain approves/disapproves
If the copilot calls “Go Around”, what should you do?
- Go around, in the interests of safety
Jet maximum holding speeds: Altitude over Navaid / DME fix ≤ 6,000 ft: 210 / 200 kts ≤ 14,000 ft: 220 / 230 kts > 14,000 ft: 240 / 265 kts Turbulence: 280 kts / M 0.8 (whichever lower)
What is pitch angle on touchdown with 10kt tailwind?
0° Be careful with nose gear
What is the time of useful consciousness at FLxxx?
FL250: 3- 6mins FL300: 1- 3mins FL 350: 30 - 60 secs FL 400: 15 - 20 secs
What happens in the cockpit if FWD cargo hold depressurises?
Cockpit also depressurises, and temperature drops to outside temp! Rapid descent is key to survival
Difference between F20 & F30 landing
F20 has less drag, so increased landing distance Also floats more, which could further increase distance
How does CG move with fuel burn?
- While on Centre tank fuel: AFT
- Wing tanks (80,000 lbs remaining): FWD
- When wing tanks ≈ half (47,000 remaining): AFT
What are the operational and working limits of the CG?