Fly first - Top priority placed on this
Assure secure and reliable operation
Achieve effective and efficient operation
Promote standardized and uniform operation
- Task sharing
- Crew coordination
- Crew communication
- Monitor and crosscheck
- Workload management
Basic policy? (Captain and flight dispatcher)
Policies for High Quality Operations:
- Ensure safety
- Achieve max efficiency
- Maintain schedule
- Passenger comfort
- Conduct flight based on policy above
- Any disagreement, use safer option. If either think the flight is unsuitable, DON’T GO
- Captain has final responsibility for safety
- Dispatcher supports captain using personnel, equipment & authorities so that flights are safe & efficient
- Do not fly if crew members are unfit for duty
- The aircraft cannot come to a standstill when trouble occurs so flight must be continued to ensure safety no matter what happens
Assure secured and reliable operation
- Secured operation means establishing procedures that are immune from mistakes
- Reliable operation means employing fail-safe features and procedures to prevent mistakes
Effective and efficient operation
- Constantly reviewing (or establishing new) procedures with operational and technological improvements and advancements
Promoting standardised and uniform operation
- With various combinations of flight crew, small variations in individual procedures in the cockpit could greatly compromise safety
- Therefore uniform standard operating procedures are established that are built on practical reasoning and clear-cut concepts that all flight crew can accept and carry out
What is meant by “task sharing”?
- The present concept can be described as PF / PM roles based on area of responsibility
- PF mainly controls the aircraft, and PM mainly does tasks other than flying the aeroplane
- The concept is consistent throughout all phases of fligh
- Tasks are assigned to PF / PM according to the accessibility of a panel or a switch position
- The Captain maintains the ultimate responsibility
What is meant by “crew coordination”?
- Safe flight is not assured without well-coordinated teamwork
- ‘Mind your own business’ does not apply
- Good coordination consists of timing and proceeding with due consideration to your colleagues progress
Major elements of crew coordination are:
- Use of checklists: Checklists are the last guard to ensure secured and reliable operation, and there are procedures in place to detail how to start the checklist, how to challenge and respond, and what to do when the checklist is interrupted etc.
- Confirmed actions: The more critical the situation, the more imperative secured operation and good coordination become. A cross-check procedure is employed when shutting down a failed engine in the air due to damage or fire, even if it may be time consuming
What is meant by “crew communication”?
- Many accidents are attributed to ineffective human redundancy due to poor expression, failure to hear correctly, or lack of understanding among crewmembers
Major elements of crew communication are:
- Standard response to order: It is basic operational procedure that crewmembers respond to an order by repeating the order before initiating the action. The crewmember then carries out the action, and then reports to the PF on completion of the action
- Standard callouts: Standard callouts play a role as a fail-safe function, and to make crew members aware of the current flight situation
- Briefing: The PF makes his intentions clear to all crewmembers and lets them participate in verifying the plan. It is done especially for take-off and landing where a considerable amount of vital information must be gathered
What is meant by “monitor and crosscheck”?
- Bad weather or failure of systems and equipment in flight tends to draw entire crewmember’s attention, and can lead to a lack of monitoring of aircraft status.
Major elements of monitor and crosscheck are:
- Scan pattern and instrument monitor during approach: This prevents the danger of simultaneous head-down, or simultaneous head-up
- Speed and descent rate during descent and approach: Particularly at low attitude
- Verification of autopilot and autothrottle engaged mode: It is important for crew to keep aware of exactly what systems are currently controlling, and what the system is doing, so engaged modes, armed modes and their changes should always be verified
- CDU or MCDU operation: Both pilots simultaneous concentration on the CDU operation should be avoided, and to avoid erroneous data entry a mutual crosscheck of the data before and after entry should be made
What is meant by “workload management”?
- Workload may increase during take-off and landing, as well as when experiencing bad weather or system malfunction
- Workload management is defined as establishing task priorities or changing task assignment to keep workload within the controllable range
- Workload management is basically left to flight crew discretion, however effective use of auto flight systems supports the “fly first” and affords the pilots time to make comprehensive decisions
Workload management can broken into:
- Flying the aeroplane: The more critical the condition becomes the more correct judgement and operation becomes necessary, so positive use of the auto flight system in an urgent situation in recommended
- Use of auto flight systems: In approach and landing under low visibility, autoland is recommended in addition to effective use of the auto flight system in other situations
What is meant by “discipline”?