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Anatomy Exam 1 > Back and Vetebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Back and Vetebral Column Deck (61):
1

The dorsal ramus of C2 is completely what?

Sensory

2

The dorsal ramus of C1 is completely what?

Motor

3

The Greater occipital nerve is completely what?

Sensory
Dorsal ramus of C2 comes from under the inferior oblique and pierces the semispinalis capitas and trapezius to supply the scalp.

4

The suboccipital nerve is completely what?

Purely motor from the dorsal ramus of C2

5

Trapezius

Nerve Innervation: CN XI

Artery Blood Supply: Superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery.

Origin: Medial third superior nuchal line, ligament nuchae, spinous process of C7-T12

Insertion: Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula

Function: Elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula; lower fibers depress scapula.

With the serratus anterior rotates the scapula from 90-180 degrees.

6

Latissimus Dorsi

Nerve Innervation: Thoracodorsal Nerve

Artery Blood Supply: Thoracodorsal artery

Origin: Last three ribs, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, spinous of T7-L5

Insertion: Humerus

Function: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus. Also plays a role in expiratory efforts such as coughing and sneezing.

7

Levator scapulae

Nerve Innervation: Dorsal Scapular Nerve

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-4

Insertion: Upper part of medial border of scapula

Function: Raises medial border of scapula

8

Rhomboid minor

Nerve Innervation: Dorsal Scapular Nerve

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: Lower ligamentum nuchea. Spines of C7 and T1

Insertion: Medical border of scapula at spine pf scapula

Function: Retracts scapula. Roatates lower scapula back to rest position

9

Rhomboid major

Nerve Innervation: Dorsal Scapular Nerve

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: Spines of T2- T5 vertebrae

Insertion: Medial border of scapula below base of spine of scapula

Function: Retracts scapula. Rotates scapula to rest position.

10

Serratus posterior superior

Nerve Innervation: Anterior Primary Rami

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: Spinous process C7 - T2

Insertion: Posterior aspect of ribs 2-5

Function: Assist forced inspiration/ Elevate Ribs

11

Serratus posterior inferior

Nerve Innervation: Anterior Primary Rami

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: Spinous process T11-L2

Insertion: Posterior aspect of ribs 9-12

Function: Assist forced expiration/ Depress Ribs

12

Splenius capitis

Nerve Innervation: Posterior primary Rami C3, 4

Artery Blood Supply:

Origin: Lower ligament nuchae, supraspinous ligaments T1-3

Insertion: Lateral occiput between superior and inferior nuchal lines

Function: Extend and rotate cervical spine

13

Semispinalis capitis

Nerve Innervation:
Artery Blood Supply:
Origin:
Insertion:
Function:

14

Serratus anterior

Nerve Innervation: Long Thoracic Nerve (note: the branch out of the roots of the brachial plexus C5,6,7).

Artery Blood Supply: Lateral Thoracic Artery

Origin: 8 upper ribs

Insertion: Ventral aspect of medial border of scapula

Function: Protracts the scapula FWD important for reaching and pushing movements

C.R. If nerve is injured will cause "winging" of the scapula. It moves laterally and posteriorly from the thoracic wall. Breast surgery can cuase this type of winging.

15

What muscle does the Greater Occipital nerve (C2) innervate?

It is sensory only no motor!

16

What muscle does the thoracodorsal nerve innervate?

Lattisimus Dorsi

17

What muscle does the Long thoracic nerve innervate?

Serratus anterior

18

What muscle does the transverse cervical artery (superficial branch) innevervate?

Trapezius

19

What muscle does the transverse cervical artery (superficial branch) innervate?

Trapezius

20

What muscle does the thoracodorsal artery innervate?

Lattisimus dorsi

21

What muscle does the lateral thoracic artery innervate?

Serratus anterior

22

Where is the Ligamentum Flavum?

d

23

Where is the Anterior longitudinal ligament?

d

24

Where is the Posterior longitudinal ligament?

s

25

What are they key surface landmarks of the back?

C7 : Vertebrae prominens
T1-T2: The superior angle of the scapula
T7: The inferior angle of the scapula
L4: Illiac crest

Note: The back extends from the base of the skull(occiput) to the iliac crest

26

Muscles of the back are divided into which two categories?

Extrinsic and Intrinsic

27

Extrinsic back muscles

Are the superficial and intermediate group of back muscles.
The Superficial group of back muscles are involved in the movement of the upper limbs.
The intermediate group of back muscles are involved in the movement of the thoracic wall.

28

Intrinsic back muscles

Are called the true muscles, they consist of the deepest layer of back muscles. They are involved in the support and movement of the vertebral column and they also participate in moving the head.
These muscles are extended from the pelvis to the cranium.

29

The ________ muscles are innervated by the anterior rami of the spinal nerves.

Extrinsic back muscles

30

The ________ muscles are innervated by the posterior rami of the spinal nerves.

Intrinsic back muscles

31

Extrinsic Muscles Superficial Group

Function of the Superficial Layer: control upper limb movements as it connects the upper limb to the trunk all inserted into the medial border of the scapula.

Layer 1
1. Trapezius
2. Lattisimus Dorsi

Layer 2
1. Rhomboid Major
2. Rhomboid Minor
3. Levator scapulae
Note: All of layer two inserts into the medial border of the scapula

32

Extrinsic Muscle Intermediate Group

Function: associate with thoracic wall and control respiratory movements:

1. Serratus Posterior Superior (function is to elevate ribs)
2. Serratus Posterior Inferior (function is to depress ribs)

33

Intrinsic muscles

Intrinsic muscles are called the "True Muscles" They function to support and move the vertebral column and participate in moving the head

Superficial Layer
1. Splenius capitas
2. Splenius cervices

Intermediate Layer
1. Erector Spinae
(iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis)

Deep Layer
1. Semispinalis
2. Multifidus
3. Rotatores

34

Triangle of auscultation

The trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and medial edge of scapula form a triangle that is absent of muscle and bone which allows us to hear lung sounds.

35

Body

Weight bearing portion of vertebra that tends to increase in size as we descend down the spine.

36

What is an articular process (facets)?

Facets are used for articulation with adjacent vertebra. There are TWO SUPERIOR and TWO INFERIOR facets.

37

Intervetebral foramen

Opening formed by vertebral notches that is transversed by spinal nerve roots and associated vessels

38

What is the name of the foramen created by the vertebrae?

Intervertebral foramen and vertebral foramen. The vertebral foramen eventually becomes the vertebral canal.

39

What characterizes the a cervical vertebrae?

There are seven cervical vertebrae. They are characterized by their small size and by the presence of the intervertebral foramen (foramen that exist in the transverse process) called the foramen transversarium.

40

What is the function of the foramen transversarium? (present in the cervical vertebrae only)

To transmit the vertebral vessles

41

Structure of Atlas (C1)

DOES NOT HAVE A VERTEBRAL COLUMN or SPINOUS PROCESS but it does contain the transverse process.

It look like a ring composed of two lateral masses interconnected by an anterior and posterior arch.

Each lateral mass articulates above with the occipital condyle to form the (atlanto-occipital joint) and below with the superior articular process of the axis to form the (atlanto-axial joint)

42

Structure of Axis (C2)

contains an odontoid process(Dens)

43

What is the odontoid process aka the Dens

The odontoid process is a portion of Axis which becomes the body of the atlas. During development the body of C1 fuses into the body of C2.

44

C7 (vertebral prominens)

has a long non-bifid spinous process. You can feel it and see it!

45

Atlanto - occipital joint

Yes-Yes joint (Flexion & Extension)

46

Atlanto - axial joint

No-No joint (Rotation)
The DENS acts as a pivot that allows the atlas and attached head to rotate on the axis side to side

47

What are the suboccipital muscles and where do the lie?

These muscles lie to deep to the semispinalis capitas
1. Recti Major
2. Recti Minor
3. Superior Oblique
4. Inferior Oblique

48

What nerve innervates all four suboccipital muscles

The suboccipital nerve of dorsal ramus of C1. That is purely MOTOR

49

What can you find inside of the suboccipital triangle

1. The vertebral artery ( a branch of the subclavian artery)
2. The suboccipital nerve C1
3. Arch of C1

50

What two structures artery and nerve are at the floor of the suboccipital traingle

1. Vertebral artery ( a branch of the subclavian artery)
2. Suboccipital nerve

51

What two structures artery and nerve are at the roof of the suboccipital traingle

1. Occipital artery (branch of the external carotid artery ECA)
2. Greater occipital nerve

52

What are the key surface landmarks of the back

C7- Vertebral Prominence
T1-T2 The Superior angle of the scapula
T7 The inferior angle of the scapula
L4 Iliac Crest

53

Cranial nerve X1 innervates what two muscles

SCM
Trapezius

54

Pedicle vs. Lamina

Lamina is between transverse process and the spinous process.

Pedicle is between the body and the transverse process.

55

Intervertebral Foramen

Foramina where spinal nerve roots and associated nerve vessels traverse
This is not the same as Foramen transversarium

56

Verterbral Arch

Vertebral Body and Vertebral Arch make up the whole length of the vertebrae.

57

Foramen Transversarium

foramen that exist in the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae ONLY and transmit the vertebral vessels.

58

Lateral Masses of C1

Exist superiorly and inferiorly to articulate with the occipital condyle of the skull (antlanto-occipital joint) and with the superior articular process of the axis (atlanto-axial joint) respectively.

59

What do the cervical C2-C6 vertebrae have in common

They all have a bifid spinous process!
The C7 spinous process is long! It is our landmark Vertebrae prominence.

60

Arrangement of muscles in the back of the neck

1. Trapezius and SCM
2.Splenius Capitas
3. Semispinalis Capitas
4. Suboccipital muscles
Rectus minor
Rectus major
Superior Oblique (attaches to transverse process)
Inferior Oblique

61

Everything about the Suboccipital triangle.

Medial- Rectus Major

Lateral- Superior Oblique

Inferior- Inferior Oblique

Roof- Semispinalis capitas

Floor- Posterior Arch of the Atlas

Artery and Nerve of the Floor- Vertebral Artery and Suboccipital nerve

Artery and Nerve of the Roof- Occipital Artery and Greater Occipital Nerve