The heart and pericardium Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 1 > The heart and pericardium > Flashcards

Flashcards in The heart and pericardium Deck (31):
1

Pericardial Tympani

Too much blood under your pericardium causes the heart to be strangled.

2

Middle Mediastinum boundaries

Superiorly- sternal angle T4/5
Inferiorly- xiphisternum / T9
Laterally on left - 5th intercostal space in midaxillary line
Laterally on right - along sternal border

3

What is the parietal layer composed of?

Serous epithelium- continous with the visceral layer

Fibrous layer- continous with the adventia of the great vessels entering and leaving the heart.

4

Where is the Transverse Sinus located?

It is above the entry of the 4 pulmonary veins

5

Where is the Oblique Sinus located?

it is between the pulmonary veins.

6

Which sinus is bigger?

The oblique sinus

7

Where are the sinuses located and how can they be accessed?

Both sinuses are located posteriorly and can be accessed only from the left side.

8

Heart and the epithelium that surrounds it.

The cavity itself is surrounded by serous epithelium (outside of balloon)

Fist is considered the heart

Outside of the balloon is a fibrous material

9

Anatomical features of the right atrium

Fossa Ovalis
Musculi Pectinati
Opening of coronary sinus
Crista terminalis
Valve of inferior vena cava
openings of superior and inferior vena cavae

10

Anatomical features of the right ventricle

Tricuspid valves (anterior, posterior, septal)
Chorda tendinae
Papillary muscles (anterior, posterior, septal)
Trabeculae carnae
Moderator band (septomarginal trabeculae)

11

Anatomical features of the left atrium

Valve of foramen ovale
Openings of pulmonary veins

12

Anatomical features of the left ventricle

Bicuspid valves (anterior, posterior)
Chorda tendinae
Papillary muscles (anterior, posterior)

13

Left Coronary arteries

1. Anterior descending artery (interventricular)
2. Circumflex artery

14

Right Coronary arteries

1. Right marginal artery
2. Posterior descending artery (interventricular)

15

Cardiac veins

1. Great cardiac vein (anterior interventricular vein)
2. Middle cardiac vein
3. Coronary sinus
4. Small cardiac vein

16

Innervation of the heart

Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve
Sympathetic: postganglionic fibers from T1-T5
Intrinsic: SA node

17

Parasympathetic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?

Vagus nerve

18

Sympathetic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?

postganglionic fibers from T1-T5

19

Intrinsic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?

SA node (pacemaker)

20

Order of conduction

SA node to AV node to Bundle of His which includes the moderator band.

21

What is the moderator band?

A muscular band of heart tissue found in the right ventricle of the heartand frequently extends from the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the ventricular septum

22

Projection of the heart valves vs. Auscultation of the heart valves

Projection of the heart valves

Pulmonary semilunar valve: 3rd costo-sternal junction on the left
Aortic semilunar valve: 3rd costo-sternal junction on the left
Bicuspid (mitral) valve: 4th intercostal space to the left of the sternum
Tricuspid valve: behind sternum at 4th rib

Auscultation of the heart valves

Pulmonary semilunar valve: 2nd intercostal space to the left of sternum
Aortic semilunar valve: 2nd intercostal space to the right of sternum
Bicuspid (mitral) valve: 5th intercostal space on the left at the mid-clavicular line (below the left nipple in males)
Tricuspid valve: 5th intercostal space to the left of sternum

23

What is Atropine?

Atropine blocks ACH. We know that the parasympathetic nervous system releases ACH twice. Therefore if this is administered instead of the heart slowing down the heart speeds up.

24

What system does beta blockers inhibit?

The sympathetic system.

25

Fossa Ovalis

Is located at the wall between the right and the left atrium.
Depression made after birth from structure utilized during fetal development

26

Musculi Pectinati

Roughness on the inside of the right atrium

27

Opening of coronary sinus

Blood coming from the coronary vessels that are connected to the big vein in the back of the heart dumps into right atrium.

28

Crista terminalis

Is an are where the SA node is located

29

Chorda tendinae

Cords that are connected to the tricuspid valve. These cords connect the tricuspid to the papillary muscles.

30

papillary muscles

Contract to prevent prolapse of the AV valves during systole (contraction)

31

How does blood enter the coronary arteries?

The strong force from the closure of the aortic semilunar valve forces blood into the coronary arteries.