Flashcards in The heart and pericardium Deck (31):
Too much blood under your pericardium causes the heart to be strangled.
Middle Mediastinum boundaries
Superiorly- sternal angle T4/5
Inferiorly- xiphisternum / T9
Laterally on left - 5th intercostal space in midaxillary line
Laterally on right - along sternal border
What is the parietal layer composed of?
Serous epithelium- continous with the visceral layer
Fibrous layer- continous with the adventia of the great vessels entering and leaving the heart.
Where is the Transverse Sinus located?
It is above the entry of the 4 pulmonary veins
Where is the Oblique Sinus located?
it is between the pulmonary veins.
Which sinus is bigger?
The oblique sinus
Where are the sinuses located and how can they be accessed?
Both sinuses are located posteriorly and can be accessed only from the left side.
Heart and the epithelium that surrounds it.
The cavity itself is surrounded by serous epithelium (outside of balloon)
Fist is considered the heart
Outside of the balloon is a fibrous material
Anatomical features of the right atrium
Opening of coronary sinus
Valve of inferior vena cava
openings of superior and inferior vena cavae
Anatomical features of the right ventricle
Tricuspid valves (anterior, posterior, septal)
Papillary muscles (anterior, posterior, septal)
Moderator band (septomarginal trabeculae)
Anatomical features of the left atrium
Valve of foramen ovale
Openings of pulmonary veins
Anatomical features of the left ventricle
Bicuspid valves (anterior, posterior)
Papillary muscles (anterior, posterior)
Left Coronary arteries
1. Anterior descending artery (interventricular)
2. Circumflex artery
Right Coronary arteries
1. Right marginal artery
2. Posterior descending artery (interventricular)
1. Great cardiac vein (anterior interventricular vein)
2. Middle cardiac vein
3. Coronary sinus
4. Small cardiac vein
Innervation of the heart
Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve
Sympathetic: postganglionic fibers from T1-T5
Intrinsic: SA node
Parasympathetic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?
Sympathetic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?
postganglionic fibers from T1-T5
Intrinsic innervation to the heart is provided by what nerve?
SA node (pacemaker)
Order of conduction
SA node to AV node to Bundle of His which includes the moderator band.
What is the moderator band?
A muscular band of heart tissue found in the right ventricle of the heartand frequently extends from the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the ventricular septum
Projection of the heart valves vs. Auscultation of the heart valves
Projection of the heart valves
Pulmonary semilunar valve: 3rd costo-sternal junction on the left
Aortic semilunar valve: 3rd costo-sternal junction on the left
Bicuspid (mitral) valve: 4th intercostal space to the left of the sternum
Tricuspid valve: behind sternum at 4th rib
Auscultation of the heart valves
Pulmonary semilunar valve: 2nd intercostal space to the left of sternum
Aortic semilunar valve: 2nd intercostal space to the right of sternum
Bicuspid (mitral) valve: 5th intercostal space on the left at the mid-clavicular line (below the left nipple in males)
Tricuspid valve: 5th intercostal space to the left of sternum
What is Atropine?
Atropine blocks ACH. We know that the parasympathetic nervous system releases ACH twice. Therefore if this is administered instead of the heart slowing down the heart speeds up.
What system does beta blockers inhibit?
The sympathetic system.
Is located at the wall between the right and the left atrium.
Depression made after birth from structure utilized during fetal development
Roughness on the inside of the right atrium
Opening of coronary sinus
Blood coming from the coronary vessels that are connected to the big vein in the back of the heart dumps into right atrium.
Is an are where the SA node is located
Cords that are connected to the tricuspid valve. These cords connect the tricuspid to the papillary muscles.
Contract to prevent prolapse of the AV valves during systole (contraction)