Flashcards in Superficial Face Deck (25):
How many bones of the skull do we have?
1. Parietal (2)
3. Frontal (1)
4. Occipital (1)
5. Sphenoid (1)
6. Ethmoid (1)
7. Mandible (1)
8. Maxilla (2)
9. Palatine (2)
10. Zygomatic (2)
11. Lacrimal (2)
12. Vomer (1)
13. Nasal (2)
14. Inferior Nasal Concha (2)
Note: The first 8 bones form the Nuerocranium(cranial vault). While the remaining bones form the Viscerocranium (face)
What makes up the Nuerocranium?
The first 8 bones
Where do the muscle of facial expression originate and insert?
Originate from bones of the facial skeleton and insert onto the SKIN of the face
Where do all muscles of facial expression develop from? Why is this significant in regard to CN function?
From an embryologic structure known as the "2nd branchial arch" and migrate into the superficial face.
This is significant because "branchial arch" is another way of saying it developed from the pharyngeal arch.
SVE= Special visceral efferent: Voluntary motor to pharyngeal arch muscle
Do all muscles of facial expression share the same motor innervation?
Yes. Branches of facial nerve (VII)
What are the superficial motor and sensory nerves of the face?
Motor Innervation: Facial Nerve (VII)
Sensory Innervation: Trigeminal Nerve (V)
What are the five major branches of the facial nerve (VII)? what route does it take?
mneumonic: Ten Zebras Bashed My Car
The facial nerve exits the skull via the STYLOMASTOID FORAMEN. It then pierces the parotid gland and as it passes through the parotid gland it divides into 5 major branches.
What is Bell's Palsy
Bell's palsy is a condition in which the facial muscles are paralyzed. This can be a result of disruption, damage, or impingement of the facial nerves.
What are the three branches of the trigeminal nerve (V) ? What type of innervation does it supply?
The trigeminal nerve provides sensory innervation. The division are:
1. Opthalmic division (V1)
2. Maxillary division (V2)
3. Mandibular division(V3)
Opthalmic Division. What division of the Trigeminal nerve is it? What is the route? What are the terminal branches?
PURELY SENSORY Division 1
menumonic: LaSSIE to remember terminal branches
The Opthalmic division passes through the CAVERNOUS SINUS and exits the skull through the SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE.
5. External Nasal
Maxiallary Division. What division of the Trigeminal nerve is it? What is the route? What are the terminal branches?
PURELY SENSORY Division 2
The Maxiallary Division passes through the CAVERNOUS SINUS and exits the skull through the FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
4. Alveolar Nerves
Mandibular Division. What division of the Trigeminal nerve is it?
SENSORY AND MOTOR Division 3
It leaves the skull through the FORAMEN OVALE to enter the INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA. It then divides into anterior and posterior divisions.
Posterior is PRIMARILY SENSORY:
1. Auriculotemporal (also carries parapsympathetic secretorymotor branches)
3. Inferior Alveolar/Mental
Anterior is PRIMARILY MOTOR:
In thinking about the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, we know the mandibular division divides into posterior and anterior branches. Which one is motor and which one is sensory?
Posterior division is primarily sensory
Anterior division is primarily motor
Which terminal branch of the Mandibular nerve carries parasympathetic secretory motor fibers?
Auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular division.
What nerve innervates the parotid gland?
parasyympathetic fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve(IX).
parasympathetic fibers from GLOSSAPHARYNGEAL NERVE travel in the LESSER PETROSAL NERVE and then synapse in the OTIC GANGLION.
Where they then exit the foramen ovale. These fibers then travel in the AURICULARTEMPORAL NERVE and innervate the PAROTID GLAND as they pass through it.
What muscle does the parotid duct pierce as it leaves the parotid gland?
The Buccinator muscle.
What is GLOAP?
It describes the innervation of the parotid gland.
Arterial Supply to the Face.
Mostly from the External Carotid Artery
1. Superficial temporal Artery
2. Facial Artery
Posterior area of the skull:
1. Occipital artery
2. Posterior auricular artery
Also supplied by the external carotid artery
Area above the Orbits:
1. Supraorbital Artery
2. Supratrochlear Artery
These two are branches of the Opthalmic artery which originates from the Internal Carotid artery.
What is the Danger Triangle?
The danger triangle is a triangle in the middle of the face encompassing the nose, where venous drainage during a period of infection within that space can potentially lead to meningitis or encephalitis.
This is because the ophthalmic and deep facial veins drain into the pterygoid plexus and cavernous sinus. If an effection occurs in this area it can migrate from this region via the deep facial vein into the cranium.
Does anastomoses of the arteries happen freely within the scalp?
Vasculature to the scalp. (This is a nice Summary)
Internal Carotid (Opthalmic)
1. Superfical temporal
2. Posterior Auricular
Nerves to the Scalp. ( This is a nice summary)
1. Lesser Occipital
2. Greater Occipital
What are the layers of the scalp?
C- Connective tissue - contains the arteries, veins, and nerves of the scalp.
A- Aponeurotic Layer- contains the Epicranius muscle and Galea aponeurotica.
L- Loose connective tissue which contains emissary veins
P-Periosteum- Fibrous tissue that closely adheres to the bones of the skull.
Note: Emissary are veins that connect the intracranial and extracranial venous systems.
What three muscles make up the helmet of the head?
Galea aponeurotica, Frontalis muscle and occipital muscle