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Anatomy Exam 1 > Child Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child Development Deck (23):
1

List the major milestones for a 4month old?

Gross motor: Supports weight on forearms
Fine motor: Opens hands spontaneously
Social skills: Smiles appropriately
Language: Coos, laughs
Cognitive: Reaches for toy with one hand, uses hands and eyes together such as seeing a toy and reaching for it, and watches faces closely.
Movement/ Physical Development: Holds head steady unsupported. May be able to roll over from tummy to back. Can hold a toy and shake it. Brings hands to mouth. When lying on stomach pushes up to elbows

2

List the major milestones for a 6month old?

Gross motor: Sits momentarily
Fine motor: Transfers objects between hands
Social skills: Shows likes and dislikes
Cognitive: Shows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of reach. Begins to pass things from one hand to the other
Language: Babbles, strings vowels together, Begins to say consonant sounds jabbering m and b
Responds to own name.
Makes sounds to show joy and displeasure
Movement/Physical Development: Rolls over in both directions. Begins to sit without support. When standing, supports weight on legs and might bounce.

3

List the major milestones for a 9month old?

Gross motor: Pulls to stand
Fine motor: Inferior pincer grasp. Uses fingers to point to things
Cognitive: Watches the path of something as it falls, looks for things he sees you hide, puts things in mouth. Uses immature pincer grasp (thumb + forefinger) to pick up small items
Social skills: Plays pat-a-cake peek-a-boo
Language: Imitates sounds. Can make repetitive consonant sounds like maaamaamma and baaababa
Movement/Physical Development: Sits without support, pulls to stand, and crawls.

4

List the major milestones for a 12month (1 year) old?

Gross motor: Takes steps- and walks holding on to furniture (Cruising). May stand alone or take a few steps without holding on.
Fine motor: Releases object on command, fine pincer grasp. Uses simple gestures-shaking head "no" or waving "bye-bye"
Cognitive: Can use cup correctly. Can put things into a container and take things out of a container
Social skills: Points with index finger
Language: 1-2 meaningful words. Usage of single words. 25% of speech intelligible to strangers.
Responds to simple spoken requests.
Says "mama" "dada" and exclamations like "uh-oh"

5

List the major milestones for a 18month (1.5 year) old?

Gross motor: Walks upstairs with assistance
Fine motor: Uses spoon to feed self. Scribbles. Walks alone. Walks up stairs with hand held. Climbs onto furniture
Social skills: Mimics actions of others
Language: At least 6 words
Cognitive: Knows what ordinary objects are. Shows interest in stuffed animals. Can follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures for example sit when you say sit down.

6

List the major milestones for a 24month (2 year) old?

Gross motor: Runs, Jumps, kicks a ball
Fine motor: Builds a tower of 6 blocks
Social skills: plays with others, plays make believe games
Language: 2 to 4 word sentences. Two-word combinations. 50% of speech intelligible to strangers
Cognitive: follows two step instructions such as "Pick up your shoes and put them in the closet"

7

List the major milestones for a 3 year old?

Gross motor: Pedals a tricycle. Alternates feet going up stairs.
Fine motor: Copies circle
Social skills: Simple games, puzzles with three of pieces
Language: Knows age and gender. Speaks in sentences. Three-word sentences. 75% speech intelligible to strangers. Follows instructions with 2-3 steps. Can name most familiar things. Says first name, age, and sex. Says words like I, me, we, and you.

8

List the major milestones for a 4 year old?

Gross motor: Hops on one foot. Alternates feet going down stairs.
Fine motor: Copies cross and square, uses scissors
Social skills: Plays with several children. Beginning of role playing.
Cognitive: Names some colors and some numbers. Starts to understand time
Language: Tells a story. Four-word sentences. 100% speech intelligible to strangers.Uses he and she correctly. Can say first and last name. Can sing a song from memory.
Movement/Physical Development: Hops and stands on one foot up to 2 seconds. Catches a bounced ball most of the time.

9

List the major milestones for a 5 year old?

Gross motor: Skips. Stands on one foot for more than 10secons or longer. Uses a fork and a spoon and sometimes a table knife
Fine motor: Copies triangle, writes first name
Social skills: plays competitive games
Cognitive skills: Counts 10 or more things. Can draw a person with at least 6 body parts. Wrrites name.
Language: Uses future tense. Tells a simple story using full sentences. Says name and address

10

What does True Regression mean?

Loss of previously acquired skills. (this always requires careful evaluation)

11

What are the red flags for abnormal development?

Note: There is a range of normal for each developmental milestone in child development.
1. Asymmetry
2. A loss of skills
3. Rolling before 3 months
4. No babbling, no pointing, no gestures by 12 months of age.
5. No single words by 16months of age.
6. Hand dominance before 18 months
7. Not walking by 18 months
8. No two word sentences by 24 months of age

12

What should be expected at birth?

Hands fisted, turns head side to side, can see objects best 8-12 inches away, can recognize caregiver's voice and smell.
Anticipatory Guidance: Safe sleep, feeding, car seats, supporting head
Toys: High contrast, other people

13

What should we be worried about at age landmarks?

4 months- Falls off bed, changing table, and choking hazards.
6 months - shopping carts and high chair falls
12 months - pulling down pots off stove, corners, falls, drowning.

14

Toys

4months- Rattles, anything they can get in their mouth
6months- Can use both hands to play
3 years- Tricycle, simple board games, puzzles, crayons and paper
4 years- Ball, basketball hoop, crayons
5 years- Board Games, more complex puzzles, arts and crafts, balls, cooking.

15

When does a baby begin to respond to their name

6 months

16

When does a baby understand the word No

9 months

17

When can a baby say maamaamaa or baabaababa

9 months

18

What percentage of developmental delays are identified by milestone checklist and informal questions to parents about concerns

30%

19

Questions to ask about developmental history (Outside of the standardized instrument)?

Who is concerned? Why are they concerned? What are they concerned about? When did they first become concerned?

20

MCHART R/F Scoring for autism

Note that for responses 2, 5, 12 Yes indicated ASD risk for the rest of them NO indicates ASD risk

0-2 = Low risk Note: If child is younger than 24 months you have to screen again after their second birthday.

3-7 = Medium risk Note: You must administer a follow up called the second stage M-CHART -R/F. If this score is 0-1 the child has screened negative and a re-screening will take place at the next well child visit. If the score is 2 or higher then the child must be referred for diagnostic evaluation for early intervention.

7-20 = It is acceptable to bypass the follow up and proceed to referral for diagnostic evaluation and eligibility evaluation for early intervention.

21

Childrens whose total score was more than 3 and then more than 2 after follow up have what kind of percentages?

47.5% risk of being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. (0.41-0.54)
94.6% risk of any developmental delay or concern (0.92-0.98)

22

Developmental Screening. What are the categories screened?

1.Communication
2.Gross Motor
3. Fine Motor
4. Problem Solving
5. Personal Social
6. Parent Concerns

Yes = 10 points
Sometimes = 5 points
No = 0 points

23

Jean Piaget- Cognitive Develpment Stages

Sensorimotor Stage
Age : 0-2 years
Exploration of environment to build new skills

Preoperational Thought Stage
Ages: 3 to 6
Characterized by egocentric view ie assumes everyone sees things from their point of view. They are not yet able to use logical processes to arrive at conclusions.

Concrete Operations Stage
Ages: 7 to 10 Uses logical rules to solve problems. Can conserve number length and volume. Can begin to take a perspective of another.

Formal Operations
Ages: 11- Above Ability to use abstract concepts. They consider real and hypothetical events. Consider divergent possibillty and what might occur.