Deep Face Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 1 > Deep Face > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deep Face Deck (41):

What is ptertion?

Ptertion is the junction of the parietal, temporal, sphenoid and frontal bones.


What artery supplies the meninges and the skull?

Middle meningeal artery. Rupture of this artery leads to an epidural hematoma.


Temporalis muscle. Insertion? Innervation? Function?

Inserts: Onto the coronoid process of the mandible and small part of the anterior ramus of the mandible

Innervation: V3 (tigeminal nerve branch 3)

Function: elevate the jaw and assist in retraction.


Masseter Muscle

Essentially the Massester muscle is the inferior part of the temporal fossa due to its origin.

Origin: Inferior border of the zygomatic arch.

Inserts: Superficial fibers:Onto the angle of mandible and part of ramus. Deep fibers: onto the lateral aspect of coronoid process of mandible.

Innervation: Nerve to the massester V3. (passes through mandibular notch along with blood supply)

Function: elevate the mandible and protract the mandible (pull jar slightly forward)


What are the borders of the Infratemporal Fossa?
What foramen do they contain?

1. Superiormedial: inferior surfaces of the greater wing of the sphenoid and the temporal bone
a. Foramen Ovale
b. Foramen spinosum

2. Anterior Wall: posterior surface of the maxilla and the pyramidal process of the palatine bone.
a. Alveolar Foramen
b. Inferior Orbital Fissure

3. Lateral Wall: Medial surface of the ramus of the mandible
a. Mandibular foramen

4. Medial Wall: anteriorly by the lateral plate of the pterygoid process. posteriorly by the pharynx and two small muscles of the soft palate
a. pterygomaxillary fissure
b. pterygopalatine fossa
c. sphenopalatine foramen


What structures are on the different walls of the Infratemporal Fossa?


Superiormedially wall contains:
1. Foramen Ovale V3
2. Foramen Spinosum (middle meningeal artery)


What structures are on the different walls of the Infratemporal Fossa?

Anterior wall?

1. Alverolar foramen
2. Inferior Orbital Fissure


What structures are on the different walls of the Infratemporal Fossa?

Lateral wall?

1. Mandibular Foramen
Note: the inferior alveolar nerve and artery pass through the mandibular foramen.


What nerve and artery passes through the mandibular foramen?

the inferior alveolar nerve and artery pass through the mandibular foramen.


What structures are on the different walls of the Infratemporal Fossa?

Medial wall?

1. Pterygomaxillary fissure
2. Pterygopalatine fossa
3. Sphenopalatine foramen


What muscles, arteries, and nerves are int eh infratemporal fossa?

1. Medial pterygoid muscle
2. Lateral pterygoid muscles

3. Maxillary artery and its 3 segments

4. Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3)
5. Sensory and motor branches of facial nerve(VII)- chorda tympani
6. Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

Note: The glosspharyngeal nerve synapses in the otic ganglion.


Lateral pterygoid muscle. Origin? Insertion? Innervation? Function?

Originate: As two heads one superior and one inferior.

Inserts: Uniquely on TMJ(superior head) and mandible(inferior head)

Innervation: nerve of the lateral pterygoid (branch of V3)

Function: Primarily to open the jaw. The inferior head can protrude the jaw, while the superior head acts on the articular disc i.e to grind food.


Medial pterygoid muscle. Association? Origin? Insertion? Innervation? Function?

Association: It is deep to the lateral pterygoid and runs parallel to the massester muscle.

Origin: Also from two heads. A deep (medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate) and superficial (from the tuberosity of the maxilla and the pyramidal plate of palatine)

Inserts: the medial surface of the mandible near the angle.

Innervation: Medial pterygoid nerve (branch of V3)

Function: to elevate and protrude the mandible. Note it works also to grind food.


What muscles assist in lateral displacement of the jaw? (i.e grinding and chewing).

Do these muscles act in series or concert?

1. Ipsilateral masseter and temporalis

2. Contralateral medial and Lateral Pterygoid muscles

Important to note that these muscles act in series.


What muscles assist in jaw protraction?

1. Lateral pterygoid (most influential)
2. Medial pterygoid
3. Masseter (limited contribution)


What muscles assist in jaw retraction?

1. Posterior fibers of Temporalis
2. Deep fibers of Masseter


What muscles assist in jaw elevation?

1. Temporalis
2. Masseter
3. Medial pterygoid


What muscles assist in jaw depression?

1. Lateral Pterygoid
2. Digastric (Primarily anterior belly)
3. Mylohyoid
4. Geniohyoid
5. Infrahyoid
6. GRAVITY- which is extremely important


Is the entire TMJ comples part of the infreatemporal fossa?

NO. But several components serve as borders.


What kind of joint is the TMJ complex? What is different about it?

It is a synovial joint that DOES NOT CONTAIN HYALINE CARTILAGE, rather it has dense irregular connective tissue articular disc.

The articular disc divides the superior and inferior compartments of the TMJ complex. It is important to note that each part is a seperate functional unit with its own specific movements.


What are the movements of the upper and lower compartments of the TMJ complex?

Lower compartment: Is the first movement. It is called the HINGE MOVEMENT (rotational) Results in opening the jaw.

Upper compartment: Is the second movement SLIDING GLIDING MOVEMENT which leads to full opening and protrusion of the mandible.

Note: Before the upper compartment can move the lower compartment must first perform its movement.


What are the 3 segments of the Maxillary artery? What muscle is the reference point for these three segments?

1. Mandibular Part (passes anteriorly, deep to the neck of the mandibular condyle)

2. Pterygoid Part (Passes across the lateral pterygoid)

3. Ptergopalatine part (Portion after it passes throug the pterygomaxillary fissure to enter the infratempotal fossa

The reference muscle is the Lateral pterygoid


What arteries branch off of the Maxillary artery? Which segment do they belong too?

mneumonic: MIDBIPS

Mandibular Segment
1. Middle Meningeal Artery
2. Inferior Alveolar Arrtery (mental)

Pterygoid Segment
1. Posterior deep temporal artery
2. Anterior deep temporal artery
3. Buccal Artery

Ptergopalatine Segment
1.Sphenopalatine artery
2.Infraorbital artery
3. Posterior Superior alveolar artery


Where does the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exit the middle cranial fossa? Where does it enter

It exits through the foramen ovale and enters the infratemporal fossa


What is the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve mainly divided into?

anterior and posterior divisions. Of which the anterior division is primarily motor and the posterior division is primarily sensory.


We know that the nerves of the anterior division of the madibular branch of the trigeminal nerve is primarily motor. What nerve from this division is the exception? What muscles does it supply sensory stimulation to?

Buccal nerve. It is supplying sensory supply to the external cheek and oral cavity.


What nerves belong to the anterior division of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?

1. Buccal nerve
2. Anterior and Posterior Deep Temporal nerve
3. Nerve to the Lateral pterygoid muscle
4. Nerve to the messeter muscle

mneumonic = BANN


From what nerve is the Lesser petrosal nerve derived from? Where does it run/synapse? After it synapses what nerve does it run with? Finally what does it supply?

The lesser petrosal nerve is derived from the Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX). It synapses at the otic ganglion and subsequently the postganglionic fibers run with the Auriculotemporal nerve to supply SECRETOMOTOR fibers to the parotid gland. (GLOAP)


Where is the otic ganglion located?

It is located deep to the base of V3, and contains cell bodies for post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the Parotid gland, which travel through the auriculotemporal neve.


What artery does the Auriculotemporal nerve wrap around?

Middle meningeal artery.


What nerves belong to the posterior division of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?

1. Auriculotemporal Nerve
2. Lingual Nerve
3. Inferior Alveolar Nere


What is special about the Auriculotemporal nerve?

1. The lesser petrosal nerve runs with it.
2. It wraps around the middle meningeal nerve.


What is the function of the Lingual nerve? What sensations travel through it?

It generally provides sensory innervation from the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

Pain, temperature and touch travel through the lingual nerve.


What is special about the lingual nerve?

It receives the chorda tympani nerve of cranial nerve VII


Where does the chorda tympani join with the Lingual nerve?

In the infratemporal fossa.


What is the function of the chorda tympani? What relationship does it have with the submandibular ganglion?

supply special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers for taste from the anterior two thirds of the tongue.

The chorda tympani fibers also carry preganglionic parasympathetic (GVE) which runs to the submandibular ganglion where it subsequently synapses; the postganglionic fibers provide secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands.


Where is the submandibular ganglion located?

Immediately adjacent to the submandibular gland.


At what point is the Inferior Alveolar nerve referred to as the Mental nerve?

The name changes to Mental nerve when the Alveolar nerve passes through the mental foramen.


Which two foramen's does the Alveolar nerve pass? What is it's route?

1. Mandibular Foramen
2. Mental Foramen

The inferior alveolar nerve passes through he mandibular foramen, enters the mandibular canal, and supplies sensory innervation to the mandibular(lower) teeth.

It then continues anteriorly and exits the mental foramen where the name then becomes mental nerve.


What nerve does the Inferior Alveolar Nerve give off before entering the mandibular foramen?

Nerve to the mylohyoid.

This nerve runs anteriorly and inferiorly to supply MOTOR innervation to the anterior belly of the digastric and mylohyoid muscles.


Does the nerve to the Mylohyoid provide motor or sensory innervation? To which muscles?

1. Anterior belly of the digastric muscle
2. Mylohyoid muscle