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Anatomy Exam 1 > Pharynx and Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharynx and Larynx Deck (77):
1

What are the layers of the pharynx from the inside out?

1. Mucous membrane
2. submucosa
3. Pharyngo-basilar fascia (attached to the based of the skull and fills gaps in the walls of the paharynx.
4. Muscles (External and then Internal)
5. Buccopharyngeal fascia

2

Name the External muscles of the pharynx.

1. Superior Constrictor
2. Middle Constrictor
3. Inferior Constrictor

3

Name the Internal muscles of the pharynx.

1. Stylopharyngeus
2. Palatopharyngeus
3. Salpingopharyngeus

4

What is the origin and insertion of the Stylopharyngeus muscle?

Origin: Medial side of styloid process

Insertion: Upper border of the thyroid cartilage (passing between the superior and middle constrictor

5

What is the origin and insertion of the Palatopharyngeus muscle?

Origin: Hard palate

Insertion: Posterior border of the thyroid cartilage

6

What is the origin and insertion of the Salpingopharyngeus?

Origin: cartilage of the auditory tube

Insertion: blends with the palatopharyngeus

7

What is the origin and insertion of the Superior Constrictor muscle?

Origin: Posterior medial pterygoid plate and pterygomandibular raphe.

Insertion: Pharyngeal raphe

Note: after insertion leaves a free upper edge which is closed by the pharyngobasilar fascia

8

What is the origin and insertion of the Middle constrictor muscle?

Origin: Greater and lesser horns of the hyoid bone and lower part of the stylohyoid ligament.

Insertion: Pharyngeal raphe

9

What is the origin and insertion of the Inferior constrictor muscle?

Origin: Oblique line of thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

Insertion: Thyroid cartilage fibers overlap middle constrictor and insert on pharyngeal raphe.

Cricoid cartilage fibers run transversely and blend with esophageal muscles.

10

What is the function of the epiglottis?

It guards the voicebox

11

Which ring is the only complete ring in the respiratory system?

Cricoid bone

12

Torus tubarius

Bump of cartilage that helps keep the eustachian tube open

13

What is the function of the superior, middle, and inferior concha?

Stir up and humidify air

14

Which vocal cord is the true vocal cord?

Vocal Fold

15

Which vocal cord is the fake vocal cord?

Vestibular Fold

16

In regard to vocal cord anatomy, what is the ventricle considered?

The pit

17

All muscles to the pharynx are supplied by what cranial nerve?

Which muscles are an exception?

Cranial nerve X

Exception: Stylopharyngeous (CN IX)
Exception: Tensor Veli Palatini (CN V)

18

What nerve innervates the Stylopharyngeous muscle?

(CN IX)

19

What nerve innervates the Tensor Veli Palatini muscle?

(CN V)

20

What nerve innervates the Levator Veli Palatini.

CN X

21

What is the function of the Levator Veli Palatini muscle?

It lifts the soft palate up when swallowing and also helps you breath.

Note: A person with sleep apnea could have a less effective Levator Veli Palatini muscle.

22

What is the most important artery supplying the Pharynx? What is it a branch of?

Ascending Pharyngeal. It is a branch of the external carotid artery.

23

List the blood supply to the pharynx as well as the artery that it is derived from?

1. Ascending pharyngeal artery (External Carotid Artery)
2. Ascending palatine artery (Facial Artery)
3. Descending Palatine artery (Maxillary artery)
4. Pharyngeal branch of maxillary artery

24

Retropharyngeal space?
What is a clinical relationship?

Retropharyngeal space is a potential space between the prevertebral fascia and the buccopharyngeal fascia.

C.R. If a chicken bone pierces the pharynx it can lead to an infection. That infection can travel down the retrophartngeal space and make its way to the heart.

25

What are choanae?

Holes leading into the nasopharynx

26

What are the two buccal nerves? What are they branches of? Is the innervation sensory or motor?

Branch of 5= sensory
Branch of 7= motor

27

What is Raphe?

The white strip that travels along the back of the constrictor muscles.

28

What is the piriform recess?

An area in the laryngopharynx ( back of the voicebox) where food can get stuck.

29

Where is the torus tubarius located?

In the nasopharynx area

30

The Buccinator is connected to the upper constrictor muscle via?...

A Raphe

31

What is the function of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?

Elevate the hyoid bone and depress the manible

32

What is the function of the styloid muscle?

Retraction and elevation of the hyoid bone. Assist in lowering the jaw

33

What is the function of the stylopharyngeus muscle? CN innervation?

Retraction and elevation of the tongue
CN IX

34

What is the function of the salpingopharyngeus muscle? CN innervation?

elevates pharynx and larynx and aids in swallowing. Opens auditory canal during swallowing (important for equalizing pressure)

CN X

35

What is the function of the palatopharyngeus muscle? CN innervation?

Elevates pharynx and larynx. Closes nasopharyngeal isthmus in swallowing.
CN X

36

Which muscle blends with the tongue?
Origin:
Insertion:
Innervation:
Action:

The hyoglossus.
Origin: Hyoid bone
Insertion: Lateral side of tongue
Action: Depression of the tongue
Innervation hypoglossal nerve

37

All glossal muscles are innervated by what cranial nerve? What is the exception?

By the hypoglossal nerve.
Exception: Palatoglossus innervated by X

38

Does the hypoglossal nerve provide motor or sensory innervation to the glossal muscles?

NO sensory only MOTOR.

39

Where is one place that the CN XII can be found? What about the lingual artery?

CN XII will be on top of the hyoglossus while the lingual artery will be deep to the hyoglossus.

40

What nerve and artery penetrate the thyrohyoid membrane?

Superior Laryngeal Artery
Internal Laryngeal Nerve

41

What nerve and artery enter the larynx?

The Inferior laryngeal artery
Recurrent laryngeal nerve.

42

Where does the superior laryngeal artery come from?

It is branch of the superior thyroid artery which is a branch of the external carotid.

43

Where does the inferior laryngeal artery come from?

It is a branch of the inferior thyroid artery which is a branch for the Thyrocervical trunk.

44

Is there a jugular vein inside of the skull?

There is no jugular vein inside of the skull. However, the sigmoid sinus becomes the jugular vein when it hits the jugular foramen.

45

What is the process for the breakdown of the Vagus nerve?

The vagus nerve divides to become the Superior laryngeal nerve and the Inferior laryngeal nerve.

The Superior laryngeal nerve then divides into the:

1. Internal branch: pierces the thyrohyoid membrane and provides sensory stimulation only.

2. External branch: pierces the cricothyroid muscle.

46

What nerve innervates the posterior belly of digastric and the stylohyoid muscle?

facial nerve CN VII

47

What nerve innervates the constrictor muscles?

CN X

48

What nerve innervates the palatoglossus?

CN X

49

What nerve provides sensory innervation above the vocal cords?

Which nerve provides innervation below the vocal cords and does all other muscles?

1. Internal laryngeal
2. The Recurrent laryngeal

50

What are the three nasal cavities?

1. Nasal Vestibule
2. Respiratory Region
3. Olfactory Region

51

What are some significant features of the ethmoid bone?

Superior Conchae
Middle Conchae
Cribiform Plate

52

What are some significant features of the sphenoid bone?

Greater Palatine Foramen
Pterygoid Process

53

List the opening in and out of the nasal cavity.

1. Orbit : nasal lacrimal duct
2. Nasopharynx : Chonae (whole where air flows in)
3. Paranasal Sinuses: Meatal openings
4. Anterior cranial Fossa: Cribiform Plate and Foramen Cecum
5. Pterygopalatine Fossa: Sphenopalatine Fossa
6. Oral Cavity: Incisive Canal

54

What are the Paranasal sinuses (Meatal Openings)? Where are they located?

Which two lie within the nasal cavity? Which two do not?

1. Maxillary Sinus- beneath the orbit almost the size of the orbit
2. Ethmoidal sinus- aneterior, middle, and posterior air cells.
3. Frontal Sinus - within frontal bone
4. Sphenoidal Sinus - Within the sphenoid bone. Directly below it is the hypophyseal fossa.

The ethmoidal and the maxillary sinuses lie within the nasal cavity

55

Which structures drain into the hiatus semilunaris (within the middle meatus)?

1. Frontal Sinus
2. Anterior ethmoidal air cells
3. Maxillary sinus

56

Which structures drain into the inferior meatus?

1. The nasallacrimal duct

57

What is the ethmoidal bulla? Which structures drain into the ethmoidal bulla?

1. It is a bulge in the middle meatus that helps for the roof.
2. Middle ethmoidal air cells

58

Describe the features of the middle meatus.

It is located beneath the middle concha. It contains a fissure called the hiatus semiluaris which runs from anterior to posterior. The ethmoidal bulla is a buldge in the meatus which helps form the roof.

59

Where is the superior meatus located? What drains there?

beneath the superior concha. Posterior ethmoidal cells drain in this location

60

Where is the sphenoethmoidal recess located? What drains there?

above the superior concha. The sphenoidal sinus drains in this location

61

What are the three major artiers that help supply the nasal cavity?

1. Opthalmic
2. Maxillary
3. Facial

The blood supply can be divided into Lateral Wall and Nasal septum

62

What blood supply does the lateral wall of the nasal cavity contain?

1. Opthalmic branch: Anterior and Posterior Ethmoidal Arteries
2. Facial branch : Lateral Nasal Branches
3. Maxillary branch : Sphenopalatine Artery

63

What blood supply does the medial (septal) wall of the nasal cavity contain?

1. Opthalmic branch: Anterior and Posterior Ethmoidal Arteries
2. Facial branch : Superior Labial
3. Maxillary branch : Sphenopalatine Artery

64

What nerve and artery travel through the incisive canal?

Sphenopaltine artery and Nasopalatine nerve

65

What is the Kiesselbach's area?

Area where anastomoses between the anterior ethmoidal, sphenopalatine and superior labial branches on the ANTERIOR SEPTUM.

C.R Is a common place for epistaxis due to trauma, infection, dry air, and hypertension.

66

What nerve supply does the lateral wall of the nasal cavity contain?

1. Opthalmic nerve: Anterior ethmoidal nerve
2. Branches from the pterygopalatine ganglion.
Sensory: V2
Parasympathetic: CN 7 (originating from the greater petrosal nerve.
3. Olfactory nerve
4. Nerve of the pterygoid canal (comes from the greater petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve)

67

Which two nerves make up the nerve of the pterygoid canal?

Deep petrosal nerve and greater petrosal nerve

Deep petrosal nerve is sympathetic from the coratid plexus

Greater petrosal nerve is parasympathetic from cranial nerve VII

68

What nerve supply does the medial wall of the nasal cavity contain?

1. Anterior ethmoidal
2. Olfactory
3. Nasopalatine

69

Where is the Pterygopalatine Fossa located? What is the priniciple resident of the PPF?

Between the pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone and the perpindicular plate of the palatine bone.

Pterygopalatine Ganglion

70

What are the canals of the PPF.

Note: Besides the Foramen Rotundum and the Pterygomaxiallry fissure and the inferior Orbital Fissure these are all after the synapse at the Pterygopalatine Ganglion.

1. Foramen Rotundum (roof)
2. Palatine Canal (floor)
3. Pterygoid Canal ( posterior)
4. Inferior Orbital Fissure (anterior)
5. Pterygomaxillary Fissure (lateral)
6. Sphenopalatine Foramen (medial)

71

What structure passes through the Foramen Rotundum?

Maxillary Nerve (V2)

72

What structure passes through the Palatine Canal?

1. Greater Palatine Nerve and Artery
2. Lesser Palatine Nerve and Artery

73

What structure passes through the Pterygoid Canal?

1. Nerve and Artery of the Pterygoid Canal

74

What structure passes through the Sphenopalatine Foramen?

1. Nasopalatine Nerve
2. lateral Nasal branches of V2 nerve
3. Sphenopalatine Artery

75

What structure passes through the Pterygomaxillary Fissure?

1. Maxillary artery
2. Posterior Superior alveolar Nerve and artery

76

What structure passes through the Inferior Orbital Fissure?

1. Infraorbital nerve and artery

77

What specific branch of cranial nerve VII contains parasympathetic fibers to the lacrimal gland?

Greater petrosal nerve