Flashcards in Shoulder, Breast, and Pectoral Region Deck (23):
What are the 4 unique spaces in the posterior shoulder?
1. Suprascapular notch
2. Quadrangular space
4. Triangular interval
Suprascapular notch (Superior transverse scapular ligament)
Contains the superior transverse scapular ligament.
The suprascapular artery goes over and the suprascapular nerve goes under it.
Bordered by the teres minor, teres major, and the long head of the triceps.
The posterior humural circumflex artery and the axillary nerve are present within this space
Borderd by teres minor, teres major, and the long head of the triceps.
The cirumflex scapular artery is present within this space.
Bordered by teres major, long head of the triceps, and lateral head of the triceps.
Within the space is the Radial nerve and the Profunda brachii. artery.
Anastomoses around the shoulder is the product of which artery branches?
Subclavian branches: The transeverse cervical and suprascapular arteris from Thyrocervical trunk. Sometimes the Dorsal scapular
Axillary branches: The thoroacromial artery from the thoracoacromial trunk. The circumflex scapular artery from the subscapular artery. Both anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. (Basically all of section 3 of the axillary artery plus one branch from the thoracoacromial trunk)
VITamin C & D
Braches of the subclavian artery
V = vertebral
I = internal thoracic (mammary) artery
T = thyrocervical trunk
inferior thyroid artery,
transverse cervical artery
C = costocervical trunk
supreme intercostal artery, deep cervical artery
D = dorsal scapular artery
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Branches of the Axillary artery
S - Superior Thoracic Artery
T - Thyroacromial trunk (deltoid branch, pectoralis branch, clavical branch, acromian branch)
L - Lateral Thoracic Artery
S - Subscapular Artery (subscapular circumflex)
A - Anterior Circumflex humeral artery
P - Posterior Circumflex humeral artery
What are the Fascial Compartments
Pectoral Fascia- Covers pectoralis major muscle
Axillary Fascia- continiation of pectoral fascia laterally
Clavipectoral Fascia- deep to pectoralis major; encloses subclavius muscle and pectoralis minor
There is only one Thoracic nerve associated with the upper extremities. Which one is it?
What are the rotator cuff muscles?
The first three insert into the greater tubercle of the humerus. The subscapularis inserts into the lesser tubercle.
Which muscle is most frequently torn in the rotator cuff injuries?
Which muscles are responsible for abduction of the arm?
Supraspinatus - 15 degrees
Deltoid - 15-90 degrees
Trapezius -180 degrees
What are the borders that serve as a protected passageway for the neurovascular structures (Axillary artery and vein and the Brachial plexus.
Apex: rib#1, clavicle, and superior edge of the scapula
Base: Axillary fascia( just your armpit really no base)
Anterior Wall(in front of it): Pect. min and maj.
Posterior Wall: Subscapularis and scapula
Medial Wall: Serratus Anterior over first 5 ribs
Laterall Wall: Humerus and coracoid process
Where do 80% of tumors in the breast originate?
The lactiferous ducts
Tail of Spene
An extension of the tissue of the breast that extends into the axilla.
What are the dimensions of the breast?
2/3 rest on the deep pectoral fascia
1/3 rest on the fascia covering the sarratus anterior
Extends vertically from the 2nd rib - 6th rib
15-20 glands form a LOBE termed the tubuloalveolar gland. These lead into a lactiferous duct.
1 LOBE per 1 Lactiferous duct.
Suspensory Ligament (of Cooper)
Connective tissue in the breast that helps maintain structural integrity by dividing glandular tissues into lobes and by attaching the lobes to the skin
What arteries supply the breast?
From MOST important to least important:
Lateral Thoracic Artery ( a branch of the 2nd portion of the axillary artery.
Internal Thoracic Artery aka internal mammary artery ( the I in VITamin, a branch of the subclavian artery)
Pectoral Branch ( a branch of the 2nd portion [thoracoacromial trunk] of the axillary artery
In what quadrant does the highest frequency of breast cancer occur? Lowest
The superior-lateral quadrant of the breast.
The Inferior-medial quadrant of the breast
Lymphatics of the breast? Remember CLASP
C- Central Nodes
L- Lateral Nodes (Humeral Nodes)
A- Apical Nodes
S- Subscapular Nodes ( Posterior Nodes)
P-Pectoral Nodes (Anterior Nodes)