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Anatomy Exam 1 > Overview of the Body > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview of the Body Deck (29):
1

Flexion

Decreases the angle of the joint. Brings two bones closer. Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow.

2

Extension

Opposite of flexion increases the angle between two bones.

3

Abduction

movement of the limb away from the midline

4

Adduction

movement of the limb toward the midline

5

Supination

lateral rotation of the forearm causing the palm to face anteriorly

6

Pronation

lateral rotation of the forearm causing the palm to face posterioly

7

Rotation

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis. Common in ball and socket joints.

8

Inversion

movement of the sole towards the midline( turning the sole of the foot inwards or medially

9

Eversion

movement of the sole away from the midline ( turning the sole of the foot outwards or laterally)

10

Dorsflexion

lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin.

11

Planter flexion

depressing the foot (pointing the toes)

12

Circumduction

a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. Common in ball and socket joints.

13

Axial Skeleton

bones of the skull, vertebral column (spine), ribs, and sternum, which form the axis or central line of the body

14

Appendicular Skeleton

Bones of the limbs, including the pectoral and pelvic gridles, which attach the limbs to the bodies axis.

15

What are Articular Surfaces? Ex.

any surface of a skeletal formation (bone, cartilage) that makes normal direct contact with another skeletal structure as part of a synovial joint.
ex. Facet, Condyle, Epicondyle

16

What is a prominence? What are some examples of sharp bony prominences vs blunt bony prominances

A small projection or protuberance. Ex. sharp is process, protruberance, crest and spine. Ex, of blunt is tubercle, tuberosity, and trochanter.

17

Example of bony Holes

Foramen, Meatus

18

Example of bony depression

Fossa, groove, or fissure

19

Bones that are classified according to their shape.

Long bone: Femur and Humerus
Short bone: Carpal bones
Flat bones: Skull vault
Irregular Bones: veertebrae

20

What are the three types of joints. Give examples. Which one allows movement?

Fibrous: Suture(seen in skull) and Syndesmosis (long fibers between the skull and ulna).

Cartilaginous: Seen surrounding the head of the femur

Synovial: The movable joints reinforced by ligaments and covered by hyaline cartilage. They are then surrounded by a fibrous capsule and the joint and capsule are lined by a synovial membrane.

21

What are the different types of synovial joints?

1.Plane: These are flat surfaced joints which allow the sliding and gliding movement. Plane joints are found at the carpals and tarpals as well as where the clavicle and acromion of scapula meet (slides when we shrug our shoulder)

2.Hinge: Uniaxial. Allows flexion and extension only. An example of this is the Ulnar bone which allows us to only flex or extend our elbow. (similar to the hinge of a door only open or close)

3.Pivot: Uniaxial. When we see pivot we should think ROTATE! Two great examples are at the proximal radial bone which allows pronation and supination(right next to it is the ulnar hinge joint which stops the entire elbow from rotating) and the atlanto-axial joint which allows us to shake our heads no!

4.Condylar: Biaxial. Allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction but does not allow rotation. An example of this is the wrist joint. Here the rotation of the wrist is from the action of the radial bone not the actual wrist joint.

5.Saddle: Biaxial. The joint has a saddle shaped head which allows flexion and extension. abduction and adduction an example is our metacarpals

6.Ball and Socket: Multiaxial. Is our champion joint which permits every motion. This joint cant be found at the hip and shoulder

22

What is one difference between deep and superficial fascia?

Deep fascia is devoid of fat

23

What is aponeurosis?

Aponeurosis is a flattened tendon for a wide area of attachment.

24

What are some Lymphoid Organs?

Lymphoid Organs make up part of the bodies immue system.
1. Thymus
2. Spleen
3. Bone Marrow
4. Lymph Nodes
5. Tonsils

Primary lymphatic organs are where lymphocytes are formed and mature. They provide an environment for stem cells to divide and mature into B- and T- cells: There are two primary lymphatic organs: the red bone marrow and the thymus gland.

25

Which arteries do not carry oxygenated blood?

Pulmonary Artery and Umbilical Artery

26

Varicose veins

Are weak, large and twisted veins that result from the one way valves of veins dysfunctioning

27

Lymph/ Lymphoid tissue

Watery fluid that resembles plasma and contains lymphocytes.

Lymphoid tissue contains both lymphocytes and marcrophages

28

Lymphocytes

White blood cells present in the lymph fluid that are responsible for initiating an immune response either by releasing antibodies or by signaling other cells to do so. Basically and immune response cell.

29

Lymphatic Drainage

After the lymph nodes test out the sample of plasma they decide whether or not to lymphocytes need to be made and then they return CLEAN fluid back to the circulatory system via the left and right subclavian veins

Thoracic Duct
Majority of the lymph drains in the thoracic duct. The thoracic duct then drains at the junction of the left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein

Right Lymphatic Duct
drains the right upper quadrant of the body at the junction of the right internal jugular vein and the right subclavian vein.