Cranial Nerves and Nuclei I and II Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 1 > Cranial Nerves and Nuclei I and II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cranial Nerves and Nuclei I and II Deck (72):
1

Description of the functional groups

Definitions of the three names
A. The First Classification - General (G) or Special (S)
General- distributed throughout body
Special- site, hearing, taste, or smell

B. The Second Classification - Visceral (V) or Somatic (S)
Visceral- body organs
Somatic- somites, soma, body
Skin, muscle, joints

C. The Third Classification - Afferent (A) or Efferent (E)
Afferent- sensory
Efferent- movement

2

What is cranial nerve I

Olfactory

3

What is cranial nerve II

Optic

4

What is cranial nerve III

Oculomotor

5

What is cranial nerve IV

Trochlear

6

What is cranial nerve V

Trigeminal

7

What is cranial nerve VI

Abducens

8

What is cranial nerve VII

Facial

9

What is cranial nerve VIII

Auditory

10

What is cranial nerve IX

Glossapharyngeal

11

What is cranial nerve X

Vagus

12

What is cranial nerve XI

Spinal accessory nerve

13

What is cranial nerve XII

Hypoglossal

14

What nerve(s) is responsible for innervation of the tongue?

Hypoglossal nerve

15

What nerve(s) is responsible for innervation of the SCM and Trapezious?

Spinal accessory nerve

16

What nerve(s) is responsible for baroreflex circuitry?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

17

What nerve(s) is responsible for visceral function?

Vagus nerve

18

What nerve(s) is responsible for extraocular eye movements?

1. Oculomotor
2.Trochlear (Innervates only the superior oblique muscle), 3. Abducens (Innervates only the lateral rectus muscle)

19

What nerve(s) is responsible for sensory and motor innervation of the face and muscles of mastication?

Trigeminal nerve

20

What nerve(s) is responsible for innervation of muscle of facial expression?

Facial nerve

21

What nerve(s) is responsible for otolitic organs, semicircular canals, and hair cells?

Vestibular nerve CN VIII which is vestibulotrochlear aka auditory

22

What nerve(s) is responsible for cochler nuclei; central auditory pathway including colliculus, medial geniculate, and Heschl's gyrus.

Cochlear nerve (says cranial nerve VII which is Facial ... find out relationship)

23

What is a ganglion?

A group of cell bodies outside of the brain and spinal cord that houses neurons sensory or motor. It is the origin or target of fibers.

If in the brain or spinal cord it is called nuclei.

Note: Every cranial nerve that has a parasympathetic function has a ganglion associated with it that must synapse before going to its target organ. III, VII, IX, X

24

Which comes first, olfactory nerves or olfactory tracts?

Nerves come before tracts

25

CN I
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

1. SVA
2. Cribiform plate
3.Olfactory nasal mucosa (smell)
4. Olfactory nerves to cribiform plate, then to olfactory bulb and finally olfactory tract

Note: The only thing it is responsible for is smelling

26

CN II
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?

1. SSA
2. Optic Canal
3. Rods and Cones of the retina (For seeing)

27

What is the attachment of the optic nerve?

Optic Chiasma

28

What is the name of the two retina associated with each eye? Which one crosses sides at the optic chiasm?

1. Temporal Retina
2. Nasal Retina

Nasal Retina (medial Retina) crosses the temporal does not. Because of this the visual field is directly opposite the physical location of the retina that records it.

29

Where does processing for vision take place?

The visual cortex is in the occipital lobe

30

Does Cranial nerve III have sensory innervation, motor innervation, or both?

Motor

31

CN III
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?

1. GVE (parasympathetic) and GSE
2. Superior Oribital Fissure

3. I. GVE input (via cillary ganglion)
a. sphincter pupillae
b. cillary muscles
Basically make pupil smaller and lens fatter

II. GSE
a. Superior, Medial, and Inferior Rectus muscles
b. Inferior Oblique
c. Levator palpebrae superioris
Basically all eye muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique.

32

Which nucleus is responsible for parasympathetic GVE innervation to the pupil?

Edinger Westphal nucleus

33

Which cranial nerve is the only nerve to exit from the back of the brain?

CN IV

34

CN IV
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

1. GSE
2. Superior Orbital fissure
3. Superior Oblique eyeball muscle
4. Posterior brainstem to the cavernous sinus to the superior orbital fissure and finally to the orbit.

35

Which cranial nerve has the longest intracranial exposure?

CN IV

36

What foramens do the trigeminal nerve exit.

V1 is the Opthalmic division = Superior Orbital Fissure
V2 is the Maxillary division = Foramen Rotundum
V3 is the Mandibular division = Foramen Ovale

37

What are the functional components of the Trigeminal nerve? What are their functions?

GSA and SVE


Note: GSA picks up pain fibers.
SVE: motor to muscles of mastication

38

Where is the Trigeminal Ganglion located?

It is located at the depression at the apex of the petrus part of the temporal bone.

39

What are the main structures innervated by the Opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve?

Skin of upper part of the face, that is, the upper orbit and above.

40

What are the main structures innervated by the Maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve?

Skin of the mid face, upper teeth, nasal and palatal mucosa.

41

What are the main structures innervated by the Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve?

Sensory and Motor

Skin of lower face and jaw, floor of mouth, mucosa of anterior 2/3 of tongue, lower teeth, gums, ear pinna and canal (GSA)

Motor to the muscles of mastication. (SVE)

42

Does cranial nerve V have parasympathetic function?

No. CN such as CNVII have fibers that attach to cranial nerve V to get where they need to be.

43

Which cranial nerve makes you cry?

CN VII

44

Lacrimal Gland Control

Lacrimal gland = parasympathetic control = CN VII. However, CN VII is using CN V to travel.

45

CN VI
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

1. GSE
2. Superior Orbital Fissure
3. Motor to the lateral Rectus Muscle
4. Brainstem to cavernous sinus to superior orbital fissure and finally to the Orbit

46

What is the function of the Superior Oblique?

Moves eye down and out

47

What is the function of the Inferior Oblique?

Moves eye up and out

48

What nerve to you use to see?

CN II

49

What nerve and muscle do you use to focus?

CN III (Cillary Muscles)

50

What nerve and muscle do you use when looking at a bright light?

CN III (Sphinctor Pupilae)

51

What nerve and muscle do you use to open your eyes?

CN III Levator Palpebrae

52

What nerve and muscle do you use to force your eyes closed?

CN VII Orbicularis Oculi

53

What functional group corresponds to parasympathetic functioning?

GVE

54

CN VII
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

Travels through the internal auditory meatus.

1. GVA = deep sensory from soft palate
2. SVA = taste buds from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
3. GSA = sensory from small part of ear pinna
4. GVE = Motor to submandibular and sublingual glands, lacrimal glands and glands in nasal mucosa. (snot, tears, slob)
5. SVE = motor to muscles of facial expression. Posterior belly of digastric. Stylohyoid and stapedius.

55

Parasympathetic fibers from which cranial nerves hitch a ride on CN V

CN III, CN VII, and CN IX

56

CN VIII
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?

1. SSA
2. Internal auditory meatus
3. Organ of Corti and semicircular canals, utricle and saccule.

Functions to regulate hearing and balance

57

CN IX
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

Exits the skull via the jugular foramen

1. GVA = deep sensory from posterior tongue and soft palate. Pharynx. Mucosa of tympanic cavity, posterior auditory tube, carotid body and sinus.

2. SVA = Taste buds of the posterior 1/3 tongue and adjacent pharynnx

3. GSA = general sensory from small part of ear pinna and canal

4. GVE = Parotid salivary gland (secretomotor) parasympathetic only

5. SVE = Stylopharyngeaus muscle

58

What muscle does CN IX lay on top of?

Stylopharyngeus

59

What are the four different ganglion?

1. Cillary Ganglion
2. Pterygopalatine Ganglion
3. Submandibular Ganglion
4. Otic Ganglion

60

Which cranial nerve is the longest nerve?

CN X

61

The vagus nerve provide parasympathetic or sympathetic innervation of organs?

Parasympathetic

62

CN X
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

CN X exits through the jugular foramen.

1. GVA = visceral sensory. From pharynx, esophagus, trachea, larynx, and abdomen
2. SVA = taste buds in epiglottis and glottis
3. GSA = sensory. From small part of ear pinna, canal, and tympanic membrane.... can be used for visceral pain and stretch barorecpters.
4. GVE = thoracic and abdominal viscera... can slow heart and speed of digestion
5. SVE = muscles of pharynx and laarynx, lev. palatini and cricothyroid.

63

Is CN X sensory, motor, or mixed?

Mixed

64

Which cranial nerve enters via the Foramen Magnum and exits via Jugular Foramen.

CN XI

65

CN XI
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

1. SVE
2. Foramen Magnum and Jugular Foramen
3. Motor to SCM and Trapezium

66

CN XII
What is the functional component?
Which foramen does it pass through?
What structure(s) are innervated?
What is the route?

1. GSE
2. Hypoglossal canal
3. Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue. Basically motor to all muscles that end in glossal (except the palatoglossus)

67

"Lick your Wounds" refers to what CN?

Refers to damage to CN XII. Damage to tongue causes tongue to point in the direction of the lesion/wound

68

SVA

any cranial nerve that carries smell and taste

69

SVE

Voluntary motor to pharyngeal arch muscles

70

SSA

Special senses of vision, hearing, and balance

71

GVE

Carrying parasympathetic fibers

72

GVA

sensors in the gut/blood vessles that can detect sensation such as pain and pressure